Atlas of Science: Images

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Part 2: The History of Science Maps

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18-24

Visionary Approaches


References

Kurzweil, Ray, and Chris Meyer. 2003. “Understanding the Accelerated Rate of Change.” The Cap Gemini Ernst & Young Center for Business Innovation. Published on KurzweilAI.net with permission. http://www.kurzweilai.net/articles/art0563.html (accessed May 19, 2008). [Quotation]

Kremer, Michael. 1993. “Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108, 3: 681-716. http://www.jstor.org/view/00335533/di976343/97p0125n/0 (accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits

Ptolemy (woodcut) from the collection of the James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.



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26-27

Milestones in Mapping Science: Timeline: 1930–196


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"Sociometry" is a public domain image; research assistance by Jaime Panzanella at the American Sociological Association and the Moreno family.


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"Lady Bountiful" is a public domain image; research assistance from the American Sociological Association.


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"World Encyclopedia" reproduced with permission of Ayer Publishers.


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“1939 Map of Science” reproduced from The Social Function of Science, by permission of Taylor and Francis Books.


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“Target Sociogram” is a public domain image; research assistance by Jaime Panzanella at the American Sociological Assocation.


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Ellingham's“ Natural Science and Technology Chart," © The Royal Society, used by permission.


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"Plot of Schoolchildren" is a public domain image; research assistance by Jaime Panzanella at the American Sociological Assocation.


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Allen's “First Citation Network" reproduced from Eugene Garfield's “Citation Index to Genetics and Science Literature," 1960, by permission of Thomson Reuters


28-29

Timeline: 1960–1982


Image Credits

Screenshot of Geographic Information System, courtesy of ESRI.


Image Credits

See Garfield et al. 1964, courtesy of Thomson Reuters.

Garfield, Eugene, Irving H. Sher, and Richard J. Torpie. 1964. “The Use of Citation Data in Writing the History of Science.” Report for Air Force Office of Scientific Research under contract AF49 (638)-1256. Philadelphia, PA: Institute for Scientific Information. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/useofcitdatawritinghistofsci.pdf (accessed September 30, 2009).


Image Credits

See de Solla Price 1965, courtesy of Eugene Garfield.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. “Networks of Scientific Papers.” Science 149, 3683: 510-515.


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Narin, Francis. 1968. “TRACES-Technology in Retrospect and Critical Events in Science.” National Science Foundation Contract NSF C-535, IIT Research Institute, vols. 1 and 2.


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See Small 1986, with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media.

Small, Henry, and E. Greenlee. 1986. “Collagen Research in the 1970s.” Scientometrics 10, 1-2: 95-117.


Image Credits

See Small 1973, reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Small, Henry. 1973. “Co-Citation in Scientific Literature: A New Measure of the Relationship between Publications.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 24: 265-269.


Image Credits

White images, see White and Griffith 1981; reproduced from Howard D. White's files.

White, Howard D., and Belver C. Griffith. 1981. “Author Cocitation: A Literature Measure of Intellectual Structure.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 32 3: 163-171.


Image Credits

Griffith, Belver C., ed. 1980. Key Papers in Information Science. White Plains, NY: Knowledge Industry Publications.


Image Credits

See Marshakova 1981, 1973, with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media

Marshakova, Irina V. 1981. “Citation Networks in Information Science.” Scientometrics 3, 1: 13-26.

Marshakova, Irina V. 1973. “A System of Document Connections Based on References.” Scientific and Technical Information Serial of VINITI 6: 3-8.


Image Credits

See Marshakova 1981, 1973, with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media

Marshakova, Irina V. 1981. “Citation Networks in Information Science.” Scientometrics 3, 1: 13-26.

Marshakova, Irina V. 1973. “A System of Document Connections Based on References.” Scientific and Technical Information Serial of VINITI 6: 3-8.


Image Credits

See Garfield 1981, courtesy of Thomson Reuters.

Garfield, Eugene. 1981. ISI Atlas of Science: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 1979-1980, 112. Philadelphia, PA: ISI.


30-31

Timeline: 1982–1998


Image Credits

"The Sandbox for Analysis-Concepts and Methods" by W. Wright et al. ACM CHI 2006. Oculus nSpace Sandbox® is a registered trademark of Oculus Info, Inc.

Data Credits

Kepler, T., and W. Wright. 2004. “GeoTime Information Visualization.” IEEE InfoVis 2004. GeoTime is a registered trademark of Oculus Info, Inc. Used by permission.


Image Credits

Screenshot of “Science and Technology Dynamics Toolbox" courtesy of Loet Leydesdorff.

Software Credits

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2005. “Software and Data of Loet Leydesdorff.” University of Amsterdam. http://users.fmg.uva.nl/lleydesdorff/software.htm (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

Screenshot of “In Flow" courtesy of Valdis Krebs.

Software Credits

Krebs, Valdis. 2008. “InFlow-Software for Social Network Analysis & Organizational Network Analysis.” Orgnet.com. http://www.orgnet.com/inflow3.html (accessed June 2, 2008).


Image Credits

Screenshot of “Flow Mapper" courtesy of Waldo Tobler.

Software Credits

Regents of University of California, Santa Barbara, Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science. 2008. “Tobler's Flow Mapper.” http://csiss.ncgia.ucsb.edu/clearinghouse/FlowMapper (accessed February 5, 2010). Tutorial from http://csiss.ncgia.ucsb.edu/clearinghouse/FlowMapper/MovementMapping.pdf(accessed June 2, 2008).


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Screenshot of “IN-SPIRE" courtesy of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

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Pajek courtesy of Andrej Mrvar, associate professor of Social Science Informatics, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences, Kardeljeva pl. 5, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, and Vladimir Batagelj, University of Ljubljana FMF-Department of Mathematics and IMFM-Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics Department for Theoretical Computer Science Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.


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Screenshot of Swanson and Smalheiser 1997 taken by Kristin Reed, Indiana University.


Image Credits

See Halasz et al. 1987, courtesy of PARC (Palo Alto Research Center, Inc.).

Halasz, Frank G., Thomas P. Moran, and Randall H. Trigg. 1987. “NoteCards in a Nutshell.” Proceedings of the ACM CHI+GI'87 Human Factors in Computing Systems and Graphics Interface Conference, edited by J. M. Carroll and P. P. Tanner, 45-52. New York: ACM.


Image Credits

See Ennis 1992 (table 1, p. 261), reproduced by permission of James G. Ennis.

Ennis, J. G. 1992. “The Social Organization of Sociological Knowledge: Modeling the Intersection of Specialties.” American Sociological Review 57, 2: 259-265.


Image Credits

See Kohonen 1995, with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media.

Kohonen, Teuvo. 1995. Self-Organizing Maps. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.


Image Credits

See Mackinlay et al. 1995, © 1995 by Association for Computing Machinery, used by permission.

Mackinlay, J. D., R. Rao, and S. K. Card. 1995. “An Organic User Interface for Searching Citation Links.” Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Denver, CO, May 7-11. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi95/Electronic/documnts/papers/jdm_bdy.htm (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

See Chen et al. 1998, courtesy of the Artificial Intelligence Lab, the University of Arizona.

Chen, Hsinchun, Andrea L. Houston, Robin R. Sewell, and Bruce R. Schatz. 1998. “Internet Browsing and Searching: User Evaluations of Category Map and Concept Space Techniques.” Special Issue (Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Emerging Information Systems Applications), Journal of the American Society for Information Science 49, 7: 582-603.

Image Credits

See Novak 1998, courtesy of Joseph D. Novak.

Novak, Joseph D. 1998. Learning, Creating, and Using Knowledge: Concept Maps as Facilitative Tools in Schools and Corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Image Credits

See Shneiderman 1992, courtesy of the University of Maryland Human-Computer Interaction Lab.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1992. “Tree Visualization with Tree-Maps: 2-D Space-Filling Approach.” ACM Transactions on Graphics 11, 1: 92-99. See also http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/treemap-history (accessed February 10, 2010).


Image Credits

See White and McCain 1998 (fig. 4), reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

White, Howard D., and Katherine W. McCain. 1998. “Visualizing a Discipline: An Author Co-citation Analysis of Information Science, 1972-1995.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 49, 4: 327-355.


32-33

Timeline: 1998–2000


Image Credits

DrL, courtesy of Sandia National Laboratory, see also Davidson et al. 2001.


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VxInsight, courtesy of Sandia National Laboratory, see also Davidson et al. 1998.

Davidson, George S., B. Hendrickson, David K. Johnson, C. E. Meyers, and Brian N. Wylie. 1998. “Knowledge Mining with VxInsight: Discovery Through Interaction.” Journal of Intelligent Information Systems 11, 3: 259-285.


Image Credits

DocMINER (Document Maps for Information Elicitation and Retrieval) is hosted at Informatik 5, Aachen University.


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Vantage Point Tool, see also Porter, Alan L., and Scott W. Cunningham. 2005. Tech Mining. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


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GeoVISTA Studio created by Mark Gahegan, Masa Takatsuma, Frank Hardisty, Alan MacEachren, and many other researchers at the GeoVISTA Center, Penn State University.

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Map of the Market courtesy of Martin Wattenberg, IBM, and SmartMoney.com.


Image Credits

See Chen et al. 1999, copyright 1999, IEEE.

Chen, C., L. Thomas, J. Cole, and C. Chennawasin. 1999. “Representing the Semantics of Virtual Spaces.” IEEE Multimedia 6, 2: 54-63.


Image Credits

See Small 1999, reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Small, Henry. 1999. “Visualizing Science by Citation Mapping.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 50, 9: 799-813.


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Lombardi visualization, collection of Mr. and Mrs. Michael Scott. Photo by John Berens.


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Aureka Software screenshot courtesy of Thomson Reuters.


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Lighthouse System by Anton Leuski.

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Screenshot of Visual Net, courtesy of Antarctica Systems, Inc.


34-35

Timeline: 2000–2002


Image Credits

UCINet courtesy of Steve P. Borgatti.

Software Credits

Borgatti, S. P., M. G. Everett, and L. C. Freeman. 2002. “Ucinet for Windows: Software for Social Network Analysis.” Harvard, MA: Analytic Technologies. http://www.analytictech.com/ucinet (accessed February 10, 2010).


Image Credits

Visone Tool courtesy of Ulrik Brandes.

Software Credits

Brandes, Ulrik, and Dorothea Wagner. 2010. “Visone: Analysis and Visualization of Social Networks.” http://visone.info (accessed March 30, 2010).


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E-Mail Analysis courtesy of ADVIZOR Solutions, Inc.

Software Credits

© Advizor Solutions, Inc. Used by permission.


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Infoscope courtesy of Macrofocus GmbH.

Software Credits

Macrofocus GmbH. 2008. “Macrofocus.” http://www.macrofocus.com (accessed June 2, 2008).


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Visual Thesaurus, © 1998-2007 Thinkmap, Inc. All rights reserved.

Software Credits

Thinkmap, Inc. 2008. “Thinkmap Visual Thesaurus.” http://www.visualthesaurus.com (accessed June 2, 2008).


Image Credits

They Rule courtesy of Josh On.

Software Credits

On, Josh. 2008. “They Rule.” http://www.theyrule.net (accessed October 30, 2007).


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TouchGraph courtesy of TouchGraph LLC, http://touchgraph.com.

Software Credits

TouchGraph, LLC. 2007. “TouchGraph Google Browser.” http://www.touchgraph.com/TGGoogleBrowser.html (accessed June 10, 2008).


Image Credits

GeoTime is a registered trademark of Oculus Info, Inc., see Kapler and Wright 2004.

Software Credits

Oculus Info, Inc. 2006. “Oculus Excel Visualizer.” http://www.oculusinfo.com/papers/ExcelVizWhitepaper-final.pdf (accessed January 1, 2008).


Image Credits

Issue Ticker, Touchscreen version (2005) courtesy of Govcom.org Foundation, Amsterdam.

Software Credits

Rogers, Richard. 2002. “The Issue Crawler: Towards a Live Social Science on the Web.” EASST Review 21, 3/4: 8-11.


Image Credits

Kartoo Visual Interface to Search Results courtesy of Hamza Habib.


Image Credits

See also Chen and Paul 2001, © 2001, IEEE.

Chen, Chaomei, and R. J. Paul. 2001. “Visualizing a Knowledge Domain's Intellectual Structure.” IEEE Computer 34, 3: 65-71.


Image Credits

See Newman 2004, with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media.

Newman, Mark E. J. 2000. “Who Is the Best Connected Scientist? A Study of Scientific Coauthorship Networks.” SFI Working Paper 00-12-64. Santa Fe Institute. http://www.santafe.edu/media/workingpapers/00-12-064.pdf (accessed February 10, 2010).


Image Credits

See Old 1999.

Old, L. John. 1999. “Spatial Representation and Analysis of Co-Citation Data on the 'Canonical 75': Re-viewing White and McCain.” PhD Research Project L710, Research in Library and Information Science, School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University.


Image Credits

See Wattenberg 2002.

Wattenberg, Martin. 2002. “Idea Line.” Whitney Artport: The Whitney Museum Portal to Net Art. http://artport.whitney.org/commissions/idealine.shtml (accessed March 30, 2010).


Image Credits

See Andrews et al. 2001, © 2001, IEEE.

Andrews, Keith, Vedran Sabol, Wilfried Lackner, Christian Gütl, and Josef Moser. 2001. “Search Result Visualisation with xFIND.” Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on User Interfaces to Data Intensive Systems (UIDIS'01), edited by Epaminondas Kapetanios and Hans Hinterberger, 50-58. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.


Image Credits

See Zhu and Porter 2002, reprinted with permission from Elsevier.

Zhu, Donghua, and Porter, Alan L. 2002. “Automated Extraction and Visualization of Information for Technological Intelligence and Forecasting.” Technological Forecasting & Social Change 69, 5: 495-506.



Image Credits

Courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

36-37

Timeline: 2002–2004


Image Credits

StoCNET courtesy of Mark Huisman.

Software Credits

Huisman, M., and M.A.J. van Duijn. 2003. “StOCNET: Software for the Statistical Analysis of Social Networks.” Connections 25, 1: 7-26.


Image Credits

JUNG courtesy of Joshua O'Madadhain

Software Credits

O'Madadhain, Joshua, Danyel Fisher, and Scott White. 2008. “JUNG: Java Universal Network/Graph Framework.” University of California, Irvine. http://jung.sourceforge.net (accessed May 29, 2008).


Image Credits

Information Visualization Cyberinfrastructure courtesy of Katy Börner, Indiana University.

Software Credits

Baumgartner, Jason, Katy Börner, N. J. Deckard, and N. Sheth. 2003. “An XML Toolkit for an Information Visualization Software Repository.” IEEE Information Visualization Conference Poster Compendium, 72-73.


Image Credits

SoNIA (Social Network Image Animator) courtesy of ATA SPA.


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Refviz Overview of Literature Search Results courtesy of Thomson Reuters.

Software Credits

Thomson Reuters. 2008. “RefViz: Explore Research Literature . . . Visually!" http://www.refviz.com (accessed June 2, 2008).


Image Credits

Tulip Software courtesy of David Auber, LaBRI Université Bordeaux 1.


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Dynet Dynamic Network Software Package courtesy of ATA SPA.

Software Credits

Advanced Technology Assessment SpA. “DyNet LS Tool.” http://www.atalab.com/software/dynet (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

Citespace Trend Analysis courtesy of Chaomei Chen.

Software Credits

Chen, Chaomei. 2008. “CiteSpace: Visualizing Patterns and Trends in Scientific Literature.” http://cluster.cis.drexel.edu/~cchen/citespace (accessed June 10, 2008).


Image Credits

HistCite Historiography courtesy of Eugene Garfield.


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The Infovis Toolkit courtesy of Jean Daniel Fekete and Catherine Plaisant.


Image Credits

See Skupin 2002, © 2002, IEEE.

Skupin, André. 2002. “A Cartographic Approach to Visualizing Conference Abstracts.” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 22, 1: 50-58.


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AuthorLink and ConceptLink courtesy of Xia Lin.


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Scholarly Genealogies courtesy of Timothy Lenoir and Casey Alt.


Image Credits

Geography of Science, reprinted by permission of Pion Limited, London.


Image Credits

Linking Papers and Funding, see Boyack and Börner 2003.

Boyack, Kevin W., and Katy Börner. 2003. “Indicator-Assisted Evaluation and Funding of Research: Visualizing the Influence of Grants on the Number and Citation Counts of Research Papers.” Special issue (Visualizing Scientific Paradigms), Journal of the American Society of Information Science and Technology 54, 5: 447-461.


Image Credits

Evolution and Distribution of Patent Classifications courtesy of Daniel O. Kutz.


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Mapping Scientific Frontiers courtesy of Chaomei Chen.


Image Credits

See Moody and Light 2006, with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media.

Moody, James, and Ryan Light. 2006. “A View from Above: The Evolving Sociological Landscape.” The American Sociologist 37: 67-86.


Image Credits

See Mane and Börner 2004, © 2004, National Academy of Sciences, USA.

Mane, Ketan, and Katy Börner. 2004. “Mapping Topics and Topic Bursts in PNAS.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5287-5290.


38-39

Timeline: 2004–2005



Image Credits

NetVis Dynamic Visualization of Social Networks courtesy of Jonathon N. Cummings.

Software Credits

Cummings, Jonathon N. 2007. “NetVis Module: Dynamic Visualization of Social Networks.” http://www.netvis.org (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

R Statistical Computing Language, © R Foundation, from http://www.r-project.org.

Software Credits

The R Foundation. 2003. “R Project for Statistical Computing.” http://www.r-project.org (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

Prefuse Visualization API as captured by Russell J. Duhon.


Image Credits

GUESS Graph Exploration System, Eytan Adar, GUESS.

Software Credits

Adar, Eytan. 2007. “GUESS: The Graph Exploration System.” http://graphexploration.cond.org (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

Author-Name Disambiguation courtesy of Vetle I. Torvik.


Image Credits

See Douglas et al. 2005, courtesy of Shawn M. Douglas.

Douglas, Shawn M., Gaetano T. Montelione, and Mark Gerstein. 2005. “PubNet: A Flexible System for Visualizing Literature-Derived Networks.” Genome Biology 6, 9: R80.

Software Credits

Douglas, Shawn M., Gaetano T. Montelione, and Mark Gerstein. 2005. “PubNet: Publication Network Graph Utility.” http://pubnet.papers.gersteinlab.org (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

CiNii Researchers Link Viewer courtesy of Ryutaro Ichise.

Software Credits

CiNii. 2004. “Researchers Link Viewer.” http://ri-www.nii.ac.jp/ComMining1/index.cgi (accessed January 1, 2008).


Image Credits

BioWisdom courtesy of OmniViz, Inc.


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GIS Map of Geography, © 2005, André Skupin.


Image Credits

Subway Domain Map: Nesbitt, Keith V. 2004. PhD diss. map. Newcastle, Australia. Courtesy of IEEE and Keith V. Nesbitt, Charles Sturt University, Australia; 2004, IEEE.


Image Credits

Critical Paths and Trajectories of Individuals courtesy of ATA SPA.


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Moody, James, Daniel A. McFarland, and Skye Bender-DeMoll. 2005. “Dynamic Network Visualization: Methods for Meaning with Longitudinal Network Movies.” American Journal of Sociology 110: 1206-1241.


Image Credits

Journal Flow Map of Data by Coombs et al., courtesy of Waldo Tobler, CSISS.org


Image Credits

Treemap View of 2004 Usenet Returnees courtesy of Marc A. Smith, Microsoft Research.


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Crossmap of Anthrax Research courtesy of Steven Morris.


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Backbone of Science courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack, Richard Klavans, and Katy Börner.


40-41

Timeline: 2006–I



Image Credits

Smart Network Analyzer courtesy of Valdis Krebs.

Software Credits

Krebs, Valdis. 2008. “InFlow-Software for Social Network Analysis & Organizational Network Analysis.” Orgnet.com. http://www.orgnet.com/inflow3.html (accessed June 2, 2008).


Image Credits

CircleView Document Visualization courtesy of Peter Bergotrom/VC Santa Cruz.


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Compendium Dialog Mapping courtesy of Jeff Conklin.


Image Credits

PublicationHarvester courtesy of Stellman & Greene Consulting. http://www.stellman-greene.com/PublicationHarvester.


Image Credits

2002 Structure Map: Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2005. “The Structure of Science.” Albuquerque, NM, and Berwyn, PA. Courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc., http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).


Image Credits

HistCite Visualization of DNA Development by Eugene Garfield (HistCite), Elisha Hardy, Katy Börner (graphic design), Ludmila Pollock (images), and Jan Witkowski (text). Philadelphia, PA. Courtesy of Eugene Garfield, Thomson Reuters ISI, Indiana University, and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.


Image Credits

History Flow courtesy of Fernanda Viégas and Martin Wattenberg, IBM, Inc.


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TextArc Visualization of “The History of Science" courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.


Image Credits

Taxonomy Visualization courtesy of Katy Börner.


Image Credits

Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2006. “Map of Scientific Paradigms.” Albuquerque, NM, and Berwyn, PA. Courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack, Sandia National Laboratories and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).


Image Credits

Günther, Ingo. 2006. “WorldProcessor: Zones of Invention-Patterns of Patents.” New York, NY. Courtesy of Ingo Günther.


Image Credits

Pang, Alex Soojung-Kim, David Pescovitz, Marina Gorbis, and Jean Hagan. 2006. “Science & Technology Outlook: 2005-2055.” Palo Alto, CA. Courtesy of Institute for the Future.


42-43

Timeline: 2006–II



Image Credits

NWB Team. 2006. “Network Workbench Tool.” Indiana University, Northeastern University, and University of Michigan, http://nwb.slis.indiana.edu (accessed March 15, 2010).


Image Credits

BibExcel Bibliographic Data Analyzer courtesy of Olle Persson.

Software Credits

Persson, Olle. 2010. “BIBEXCEL.” http://www8.umu.se/inforsk/Bibexcel (accessed February 10, 2010).


Image Credits

Knowledge Spaces for Collective Annotation courtesy of Knewco, Inc.

Software Credits

Knewco, Inc. 2008. “Knewco: Knowledge Redesigned.” http://knewco.com (accessed June 10, 2008).


Image Credits

Geographic Map: Where Science Gets Done, the Illuminated Diagram Map used in Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, with input from Kevin W. Boyack, Richard Klavans, John Burgoon, and W. Bradford Paley.


Image Credits

Topic Map: How Scientific Paradigms Relate, the Illuminated Diagram Map used in Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, based on “Map of Scientific Paradigms Research" and Node layout by Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. http://www.mapofscience.com with graphics and typography by W. Bradford Paley, Information Esthetics, http://didi.com/brad, conceptualized and commissioned by Katy Börner.


Image Credits

Hands-On Science Maps for Kids, featured in Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, World Map featuring original artwork by Fileve Palmer, Indiana University.


Image Credits

Hands-On Science Maps for Kids, Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, Science Map by Fileve Palmer (original artwork and design) and Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University, incorporating the structural elements of the “Map of Scientific Paradigms" by Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).


Image Credits

WorldProcessor Globe of Patents, © Ingo Günther, WorldProcessor.com, 1988-2007.


Image Credits

UK's Global Ecological Footprint, Ecological Footprint Trade Flow Map Visualization. Visualization by Doantam Phan, Stanford University, data by Dan Moran, Global Footprint Network, published in The UK Interdependence Report by New Economics Foundation.


Image Credits

Atlas of Science courtesy of Félix de Moya Anegón, SCImago Research Group.


44-45

Timeline: 2006–2007



Image Credits

Visual Concept Explorer courtesy of Xia Lin.

Software Credits

Lin, Xia. 2010. “Visual Concept Explorer.” http://cluster.cis.drexel.edu/vce (accessed March 15, 2010).


Image Credits

Netscan Usenet Visualization courtesy of Marc A. Smith and Danyel Fisher, Microsoft Research.


Image Credits

Electronic Scientific Portfolio Assistant courtesy of Discovery Logic, Inc.


Image Credits

Treparel Patent Visualization courtesy of Anton Heijs, Treparel.

Software Credits

Heijs, Anton, and Treparel Information Solutions, B.V. 2008. “Treparel.” http://www.treparel.com (accessed June 2, 2008). Used by permission.


Image Credits

Publish or Perish Academic Citation Analyzer courtesy of Harzing.com and Tarma Software Research Pty Ltd.


Image Credits

SparkCluster Map courtesy of SparkIP.


Image Credits

SciTrends courtesy of www.scitrends.net (Murat Cokol and Raul Rodriguez-Esteban).


Image Credits

See Carvalho and Batty 2006.

Carvalho, Rui, and Michael Batty. 2006. “The Geography of Scientific Productivity: Scaling in US Computer Science.” Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment P10012. http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/physics/pdf/0603/0603242v3.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).


Image Credits

See Holloway et al. 2007. Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Holloway, Todd, Miran Bozievi, and Katy Börner. 2007. “Analyzing and Visualizing the Semantic Coverage of Wikipedia and Its Authors.” Complexity 12, 3: 30-40.


Image Credits

See Herr II et al. 2008, © 2008 IEEE.

Herr II, Bruce W., Russell Jackson Duhon, Katy Börner, Elisha F. Hardy, and Shashikant Penumarthy. 2008. “113 Years of Physical Review: Using Flow Maps to Show Temporal and Topical Citation Patterns.” Proceedings of the 12th Information Visualization Conference (IV'08), 421-426. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Conference Publishing Services.


Image Credits

Chen, Chaomei, Jian Zhang, Lisa Kershner, Michael S. Vogeley, J. Richard Gott III, and Mario Juric. 2007. “Mapping the Universe: Space. Time. Discovery!" Philadelphia, PA, and Princeton, NJ. Courtesy of Drexel University and Princeton University.


Image Credits

Herr II, Bruce W. (data mining and visualization), Todd Holloway (data mining), Elisha F. Hardy (graphic design), Kevin W. Boyack (graph layout), Katy Börner (concept). 2007. “Science Related Wikipedian Activity.” Bloomington, IN, and Albuquerque, NM. Courtesy of Indiana University.


Image Credits

2003 ISI/Scopus/UCSD Map © 2007, The Regents of the University of California, all rights reserved.


Image Credits

Hypothetical Model of the Evolution and Structure of Science, 2007, courtesy of Daniel Zeller, Pierogi Gallery, Brooklyn, and G-Module, Paris.


Image Credits

RNAi Development and Nobel Prize courtesy of Shawn M. Douglas.


46-47

Timeline: 2007


Image Credits

"Citation Network of Supreme Court Abortion and Birth Control Cases with KeyCite Status Flags" courtesy of Peter A. Hook, Indiana University.


Image Credits

"Mapping the Evolution of Chemistry Research" courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack, Katy Börner, and Richard Klavans.


Image Credits

"The Product Space" courtesy of César A. Hidalgo.


Image Credits

"Mapping Multidisciplinary Science," public domain image by Masatsura Igami and Ayaka Saka, National Institute of Science and Technology Policy, Japan.


Image Credits

See Rosvall and Bergstrom 2008, © 2008, National Academy of Sciences, USA.

Rosvall, M., and C. T. Bergstrom. 2008. “Maps of Random Walks on Complex Networks Reveal Community Structure.” PNAS 105, 4: 1118-1123.


Image Credits

"A Global Map of Science based on the ISI Subject Categories," courtesy of Loet Leydesdorff.

Acknowledgements: This exhibit is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS-0238261, CHE-0524661, IIS-0534909 and IIS-0715303, the James S. McDonnell Foundation; Thomson Reuters; the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, University Information Technology Services, and the School of Library and Information Science, all three at Indiana University. Some of the data used to generate the science maps is from the Web of Science by Thomson Reuters and Scopus by Elsevier. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.