Atlas of Science: Images

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Part 4: Second Iteration of Exhibit (2006): The Power of Reference Systems

Click on image to access credits or download high resolution image.

110-111

Second Iteration of Exhibit (2006): The Power of Reference System


Image Credits

Overview of the second iteration: Elisha F. Hardy (design), and Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.


112-113

U.S. Frequency Allocations Chart



Image Credits

Courtesy of National Telecommunications and Information Administration with redesigned elements by Shravan Rajagopal, Indiana University.



Image Credits

National Telecommunications and Information Administration. 2003. “U.S. Frequency Allocation Chart.” Courtesy of the Office of Spectrum Management, Washington, DC.

Data Credits

National Telecommunications and Information Administration


114-115

The Visual Elements Periodic Table


Image Credits

Robertson, Murray, and John Emsley. 2005. Visual Elements Periodic Table. London, UK.
Courtesy of the Royal Society of Chemistry Images, © Murray Robertson, 1999-2006.


116-117

Cartographica Extraordinaire: The Historical Map Transformed


Image Credits

Courtesy of ESRI Press, © 2004 David Rumsey, ESRI, DigitalGlobe, Inc., MassGIS. All rights reserved.


118-119

Sky Chart of New York City in April 2006


Image Credits

Sinnott, Roger W. 2006. “The Interactive Factory.” Sky Chart of New York City in April 2006. Cambridge, MA.
Courtesy of Sky & Telescope magazine.


Image Credits

Sinnott, Roger W. 2006. “The Interactive Factory.” Sky Chart of New York City in April 2006. Cambridge, MA.
Courtesy of Sky & Telescope magazine.


120-123

HistCite Visualization of DNA Development


Image Credits

Garfield, Eugene. 2006. HistCite Visualization of DNA Development by Eugene Garfield (HistCite), Elisha Hardy and Katy Börner (graphic design),
Ludmila Pollock (images), Jan Witkowski (text). Philadelphia, PA.
Courtesy of Eugene Garfield, Thomson Reuters, Indiana University, and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.


Image Credits

Manually compiled historiography, see Garfield et al. 1964.

Garfield, Eugene, Irving H. Sher, and Richard J. Torpie. 1964. “The Use of Citation Data in Writing the History of Science.”
Report for Air Force Office of Scientific Research under contract AF49 (638)-1256.
Philadelphia, PA: Institute for Scientific Information. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/useofcitdatawritinghistofsci.pdf (accessed September 30, 2009).


Image Credits

Automically generated historiograph and screen shots, Katy Börner, Indiana University, using HistCite Software.

Data Credits

Asimov data, see Asimov 1963.

Asimov, Isaac. 1963. The Genetic Code. New York: Signet/Penguin.

Garfield, Eugene. 1963. Science Citation Index. Science Citation Index 1961, 1: v-xvi.
http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/80.pdf (accessed August 13, 2009).

Garfield, Eugene, and Irving H. Sher. 1963. Genetics Citation Index, 864. Philadelphia: Institute for Scientific Information.

Software Credits

HistCite Software LLC. 2008. “HistCite: Bibliometric Analysis and Visualization Software.”
http://www.histcite.com
(accessed June 10, 2008).


124-127

History Flow Visualization of the Wikipedia Entry “Abortion”


Image Credits

All HistFlow maps courtesy of Fernanda Viégas and Martin Wattenberg, IBM, see Viégas et al. 2004.

Viégas, Fernanda, Martin Wattenberg, and D. Kushal. 2004. “Studying Cooperation and Conflict Between Authors with History Flow Visualizations.”
Proceedings of SIGCHI 6, 1: 575-582. Vienna, Austria, April 24-29. http://alumni.media.mit.edu/~fviegas/papers/history_flow.pdf (accessed June 2, 2008).

Data Credits

Wikimedia data downloaded from http://download.wikipedia.org in May 2003.


Image Credits

All HistFlow maps courtesy of Fernanda Viégas and Martin Wattenberg, IBM, see Viégas et al. 2004.

Viégas, Fernanda, Martin Wattenberg, and D. Kushal. 2004. “Studying Cooperation and Conflict Between Authors with History Flow Visualizations.”
Proceedings of SIGCHI 6, 1: 575-582. Vienna, Austria, April 24-29. http://alumni.media.mit.edu/~fviegas/papers/history_flow.pdf (accessed June 2, 2008).

Data Credits

Wikimedia data downloaded from http://download.wikipedia.org in May 2003.


Image Credits

All HistFlow maps courtesy of Fernanda Viégas and Martin Wattenberg, IBM, see Viégas et al. 2004.

Viégas, Fernanda, Martin Wattenberg, and D. Kushal. 2004. “Studying Cooperation and Conflict Between Authors with History Flow Visualizations.”
Proceedings of SIGCHI 6, 1: 575-582. Vienna, Austria, April 24-29. http://alumni.media.mit.edu/~fviegas/papers/history_flow.pdf (accessed June 2, 2008).

Data Credits

Wikimedia data downloaded from http://download.wikipedia.org in May 2003.


Image Credits

All HistFlow maps courtesy of Fernanda Viégas and Martin Wattenberg, IBM, see Viégas et al. 2004.

Viégas, Fernanda, Martin Wattenberg, and D. Kushal. 2004. “Studying Cooperation and Conflict Between Authors with History Flow Visualizations.”
Proceedings of SIGCHI 6, 1: 575-582. Vienna, Austria, April 24-29. http://alumni.media.mit.edu/~fviegas/papers/history_flow.pdf (accessed June 2, 2008).

Data Credits

Wikimedia data downloaded from http://download.wikipedia.org in May 2003.


128-131

TextArc Visualization of “The History of Science”


Image Credits

Paley, W. Bradford. 2006. TextArc Visualization of “A History of Science.” New York, NY. Courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

Image Credits

All TextArc maps courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

A History of Science by Henry Smith Williams (originally published in 1904), text downloaded from Project Gutenberg online: http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1705 (Volume 1: The Beginnings of Science); http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1706 (Volume 2: The Beginnings of Modern Science); http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1707 (Volume 3: Modern Development of the Physical Sciences); http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1708 (Volume 4: Modern Development of the Chemical and Biological Sciences). (accessed June 10, 2008.)

Software Credits

Paley, W. Bradford. 2002. TextArc Home Page. http://textarc.org (accessed June 10, 2008).


Image Credits

All TextArc maps courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

Data Credits

Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll (originally published in 1865), text downloaded from Project Gutenberg, http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/928 (accessed June 10, 2008).

Software Credits

Paley, W. Bradford. 2002. TextArc Home Page. http://textarc.org (accessed June 10, 2008).


Image Credits

Paley, W. Bradford. 2006. TextArc Visualization of “A History of Science.” New York, NY. Courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

Image Credits

All TextArc maps courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

A History of Science by Henry Smith Williams (originally published in 1904), text downloaded from Project Gutenberg online: http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1705 (Volume 1: The Beginnings of Science); http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1706 (Volume 2: The Beginnings of Modern Science); http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1707 (Volume 3: Modern Development of the Physical Sciences); http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1708 (Volume 4: Modern Development of the Chemical and Biological Sciences). (accessed June 10, 2008.)

Software Credits

Paley, W. Bradford. 2002. TextArc Home Page. http://textarc.org (accessed June 10, 2008).


132-135

Taxonomy Visualization of Patent Data


Image Credits

Map and two sketches, see Börner et al. 2007.

Börner, Katy, Elisha F. Hardy, Bruce W. Herr II, Todd Holloway, and W. Bradford Paley. 2007. “Taxonomy Visualization in Support of the Semi-Automatic Validation and Optimization of Organizational Schemas.” Journal of Informetrics 1, 3: 214-225.

Data Credits

United States Patent and Trademark Office, data sets downloadable from ftp://ftp.uspto.gov/pub/patdata.

The number of references a patent shares was downloaded from http://patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html.


Image Credits

Zoom into Bar Graphs, Zoom into References, and Zoom into Citations by Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.


Image Credits

Zoom into Bar Graphs, Zoom into References, and Zoom into Citations by Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.


Image Credits

Zoom into Bar Graphs, Zoom into References, and Zoom into Citations by Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.


136-139

Map of Scientific Paradigms


Image Credits

Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2006. “Map of Scientific Paradigms.” Albuquerque, NM, and Berwyn, PA. Courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack, Sandia National Laboratories and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Data Credits

Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index by Thomson Reuters.

Software Credits

VxOrd, see Davidson et al. 2001.

Davidson, George S., Brian N. Wylie, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2001. “Cluster Stability and the Use of Noise in Interpretation of Clustering.” Proceedings of IEEE Information Visualization 2001, 23-30. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE.

VxInsight, see Davidson 1998.

Davidson, George S., B. Hendrickson, David K. Johnson, C. E. Meyers, and Brian N. Wylie. 1998. “Knowledge Mining with VxInsight: Discovery Through Interaction.” Journal of Intelligent Information Systems 11, 3: 259-285.


Image Credits

All VxOrd maps (Country Profiles, Institutional Strengths) courtesy of Richard Klavans and Kevin W. Boyack, SciTech Strategies, Inc., http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).


Image Credits

Patent yield, see Boyack and Klavans 2008.

Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2008. “Measuring Science-Technology Interaction Using Rare Inventor-Author Names.” Journal of Informetrics 2, 3: 173-183.


Image Credits

All VxOrd maps (Country Profiles, Institutional Strengths) courtesy of Richard Klavans and Kevin W. Boyack, SciTech Strategies, Inc., http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).


Image Credits

All VxOrd maps (Country Profiles, Institutional Strengths) courtesy of Richard Klavans and Kevin W. Boyack, SciTech Strategies, Inc.,
http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).


Image Credits

Paley, W. Bradford. 2007. Topic Map: How Scientific Paradigms Relate, used by permission.


140-143

WorldProcessor: Zones of Invention—Patterns of Patent


Image Credits

WorldProcessor: Zones of Invention-Patterns of Patents (New York, NY, 2006) © Ingo Günther, WorldProcessor.com, 1988-2007.


Image Credits

WorldProcessor: Zones of Invention-Patterns of Patents (New York, NY, 2006) © Ingo Günther, WorldProcessor.com, 1988-2007.

Photos of WorldProcessor globes courtesy of Ingo Günther, see also http://WorldProcessor.org.


Photos of WorldProcessor globes courtesy of Ingo Günther, see also http://WorldProcessor.org.

Acknowledgements: This exhibit is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS-0238261, CHE-0524661, IIS-0534909 and IIS-0715303, the James S. McDonnell Foundation; Thomson Reuters; the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, University Information Technology Services, and the School of Library and Information Science, all three at Indiana University. Some of the data used to generate the science maps is from the Web of Science by Thomson Reuters and Scopus by Elsevier. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.