Atlas of Science: References

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15

Part 2: The History of Science Maps

References

Santayana, George. 1905. The Life of Reason. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons. [Quotation, p. 284]

Image Credits

Paley, W. Bradford. 2006. TextArc Visualization of “The History of Science.” New York, NY. Courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

16

Visionary Approaches

Image Credits

Visionaries Timeline by Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Knowledge Collection

References

Amazon.com. 2008. “Kindle.” http://amazon.com/kindle (accessed November 1, 2009).

Giles, C. Lee, Kurt D. Bollacker, and Steve Lawrence. 1998. “CiteSeer: An Automatic Citation Indexing System.” Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Conference on Digital Libraries (DL’98), edited by Ian Witten, Rob Akscyn, and Frank M. Shipman III, 89–98. New York: ACM Press. http://clgiles.ist.psu.edu/papers/DL-1998-citeseer.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Ginsparg, Paul. 2006. “As We May Read.” The Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 38: 9606–9608. http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/26/38/9606 (accessed October 30, 2007).

Lawrence, Steve, C. Lee Giles, and K. Bollacker. 1999. “Digital Libraries and Autonomous Citation Indexing.” IEEE Computer, 32, 6: 67–71. http://clgiles.ist.psu.edu/papers/IEEE.Computer.DL-ACI.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Wright, Alex. 2007. Glut: Mastering Information Through The Ages. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press.

Michael S. Hart (b. 1947): Project Gutenberg, 1971

References

Ibiblio.org. 2008. “Notes from the Lab.” http://www.ibiblio.org/ibiblog (accessed March 12, 2010).

Lebert, Marie. 2005. “Project Gutenberg, from 1971 to 2005.” http://www.etudes-francaises.net/dossiers/gutenberg_eng.htm (accessed October 30, 2007).

Project Gutenberg. 2010. “Project Gutenberg News.” http://www.gutenbergnews.org (accessed January 25, 2010).

Thomas, Jeffrey. 2007. “Project Gutenberg Digital Library Seeks to Spur Legacy.” Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State: America.gov. http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2007/July/200707201511311CJsamohT0.6146356.html (accessed November 12, 2009). [Quotation, Michael Hart, interview]

Image Credits

Hart portrait courtesy of Michael Hart.

Contributors

Michael Hart.

Brewster Kahle (b. 1960): Internet Archive, 1996

References

Internet Archive. 2001. “Bios.” http://www.archive.org/about/bios.php (accessed October 30, 2007).

Internet Archive. 2001. “Wayback Machine.” http://www.archive.org/web/web.php (accessed October 30, 2007).

Kahle, Brewster. 2006. Keynote Address. Presented at Wikimania 2006. Cambridge, MA, August 4.

Kahle, Brewster. 2007. “Universal Access to All Knowledge Is Within Our Grasp.” Presentation at Microsoft Faculty Summit 2007. Redmond, WA, July 16. Previously available at http://research.microsoft.com/workshops/FS2007/presentations/Kahle_Brewster_Faculty_Summit_071607.ppt (accessed January 1, 2008). [Quotation]

Image Credits

Kahle portrait is an unattributed public domain image.

Stevan Harnad (b. 1945): American Scientist Open Access Forum, 1998

References

Berners-Lee, Tim, Dave De Roure, Stevan Harnad, and Nigel Shadbolt. 2005. “Journal Publishing and Author Self-Archiving: Peaceful Co-Existence and Fruitful Collaboration.” Unpublished manuscript. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/11160 (accessed November 30, 2007).

Brody, Tim, Simon Kampa, Stevan Harnad, Les Carr, and Steve Hitchcock. 2003. “Digitometric Services for Open Archives Environments.” In Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL’03), edited by T. Koch and I. Sølvberg, 207–220. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/7503 (accessed October 30, 2007).

Harnad, Stevan. 1990. “Scholarly Skywriting and the Prepublication Continuum of Scientific Inquiry.” Psychological Science 1: 342–343. Reprinted in Current Contents 45, November 11, 1991: 9–13. http://cogprints.org/1581 (accessed November 30, 2007).

Harnad, Stevan. 2003. “Online Archives for Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications.” In International Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, edited by John Feather and Paul Sturges. Andover, UK: Routledge. http://users.ecs.soton.ac.uk/harnad/Temp/archives.htm (accessed February 16, 2010). [Quotation]

Harnad, Stevan. 2008. “Harnad E-Print Archives and Psycoloquy and BBS Journal Archives.” http://users.ecs.soton.ac.uk/harnad (accessed October 30, 2007).

Harnad, Stevan, and L. Carr. 2000. “Integrating, Navigating and Analyzing Eprint Archives Through Open Citation Linking (the OpCit Project).” Special Issue (Scientometrics: Tribute to Eugene Garfield), Current Science 79, 5: 629–638. http://www.iisc.ernet.in/~currsci/sep102000/629.pdf (accessed November 30, 2007).

Lawrence, Steve. 2001. “Online or Invisible?” http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/online-nature01 (accessed November 30, 2007).

School of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton. 2007. Cogprints Home Page. http://cogprints.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits

Harnad portrait courtesy of Stevan Harnad.

Encyclopedias

References

Perseus Digital Library. 2007. “Pliny the Elder.” From The Natural History, edited by John Bostock and H. T. Riley. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.02.0137 (accessed March 30, 2010).

Thayer, Bill. 2006. “Pliny the Elder: the Natural History.” http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Pliny_the_Elder/home.html (accessed November 30, 2007).

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010. “Encyclopedia.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclopedia (accessed February 8, 2010).

Wikimedia Foundation. 2009. “Wikipedia Statistics: Thursday, December 31, 2009.” http://stats.wikimedia.org/EN (accessed February 4, 2010).

Denis Diderot (1713-1784) and Jean le Rond d’Alembert (1717-1783): Encyclopédie, 1751-1777

References

d’Alembert, Jean le Rond, and Denis Diderot. 1751. Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers. Paris: Briasson, David, Le Breton, and Durand.

Barzun, Jacques and Ralph H. Bowen, trans. 1956. Diderot: Rameau’s Nephew and Other Works. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing. [Quotation, p. 283]

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. 1980. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Grimsley, Ronald. 1963. Jean d’Alembert. Oxford: Clarenden Press.

Rorty, Amélie. 2003. The Many Faces of Philosophy: Reflections from Plato to Arendt, 237. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Scholarly Publishing Office of the University of Michigan Library. 2010. “The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d’Alembert: Collaborative Translation Project.” http://quod.lib.umich.edu/d/did/intro.html; http://quod.lib.umich.edu/d/did (accessed February 4, 2010).

Scott, Michon. 2010. “Rocky Road: Diderot and d’Alembert.” http://www.strangescience.net/didalem.htm (accessed February 4, 2010).

Wernick, Robert. 1997. “Declaring an Open Season on the Wisdom of the Ages.” Smithsonian Magazine, May.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010. “Encyclopédie. The 18th-Century French Encylopaedia.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclopédie (accessed February 4, 2010).

Image Credits

Diderot portrait: public domain image from The Hundred Greatest Men. 1885. New York: D. Appleton & Company.

d’Alembert portrait: public domain image, engraving by William Hopwood, 1784–1853.

Système Figuré: public domain image.

Contributors

Loet Leydesdorff and Peter A. Hook.

Jimmy Wales (b. 1966): Founder of Wikipedia, 2001

References

Lewine, Edward. 2007. “The Encylopedist’s Lair.” New York Times Magazine, November 17.

Sanger, Larry. 2001. “Let’s Make a Wiki.” Nupedia-L: Internet Archive, January 10. http://web.archive.org/web/20030414014355/; http:/www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2001-January/000676.html (accessed January 1, 2008).

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010. “Jimmy Wales.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Wales (accessed February 4, 2010). [Quotation, sourced material]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia Home Page. http://wikipedia.org (accessed February 4, 2010).

Image Credits

Wales portrait: public domain image, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.5 License.

Knowledge Dissemination

Johann Gutenberg (1398–1468): Printing Press, 1455

References

Baldwin Project. “John Gutenberg and the Invention of Printing.” From Great Inventors and Their Inventions by Frank P. Bachman. http://www.mainlesson.com/display.php?author=bachman&book=inventors&story=gutenberg (accessed October 30, 2007).

Rees, Fran. 2006. Johannes Gutenberg: Inventor of the Printing Press. The Signature Lives Series. Mankato, MN: Compass Point Books.

Image Credits

Public domain image: Meisner, Heinrich, and Johannes Luther. 1900. Die Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst. Bielefeld and Leipzig, Germany: Verlag von Velhagen & Klafing.

Theodor Holm Nelson (b. 1937): Xanadu, 1960; Hypertext 1963

References

Nelson, Theodor Holm. 1982. Literary Machines. Sausalito, CA: Mindful Press.

Nelson, Theodor Holm. 1987. Computer Lib/Dream Machines. Redmond, WA: Tempus Books of Microsoft Press.

Nelson, Theodor Holm. 2006. “My Life and Work, Very Brief.” http://hyperland.com/mlawLeast.html (accessed January 1, 2008). [Quotation, self]

Rayward, W. Boyd. 1994. “Visions of Xanadu: Paul Otlet (1868–1944) and Hypertext.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45, 4: 235–250. http://people.lis.illinois.edu/~wrayward/otlet/xanadu.htm (accessed February 10, 2010).

Image Credits

Nelson portrait courtesy of Matt Locke, http://www.test.org.uk.

Vinton Gray Cerf (b. 1943): Internet, 1973

References

Abbate, Janet. 1999. Inventing the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cerf, Vinton G. 2005. “Letter to the Honorable Joe Barton and the Honorable John D. Dingell on Internet Neutrality.” Posted to the Official Google Blog by Alan Davidson, November 8, 2005. http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2005/11/vint-cerf-speaks-out-on-net-neutrality.html (accessed January 1, 2008). [Quotation]

Cerf, Vinton G., and Bob E. Kahn. 1974. “A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnections.” IEEE Transactions on Communications COM 22, 5: 637–648.

Hafner, Katie. 1998. Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet. Carmichael, CA: Touchstone Books.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2009. “Inventor of the Week: Vinton Cerf—Internet Protocols (TCP/IP).” Lemelson MIT Program, MIT School of Engineering. http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/cerf.html (accessed November 12, 2009).

Miniwatts Marketing Group. 2008. “World Internet Usage Statistics and Populations Stats.” http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm (accessed June 2, 2008).

Image Credits

Cerf portrait courtesy of Vinton G. Cerf.

Timothy Berners-Lee (b. 1955): World Wide Web, 1989

References

Berners-Lee, Tim. 1999. Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web. San Francisco: HarperCollins.

Berners-Lee, Tim. 2010. “The WorldWideWeb Browser.” http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/WorldWideWeb (accessed February 15, 2010).

Berners-Lee, Tim, Dieter Fensel, James A. Hendler, Henry Lieberman, and Wolfgang Wahlster. 2005. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Berners-Lee, Tim, Wendy Hall, and James A. Hendler. 2006. A Framework for Web Science. Boston: Now Publishers.

Berners-Lee, Tim, James A. Hendler, and O. Lassila. 2001. “The Semantic Web.” Scientific American, May. http://www.sciam.com/2001/0501issue/
0501berners-lee.html
(accessed January 1, 2008). [Quotation]

Soylent Communications. 2008. “Tim Berners-Lee.” NNDB. http://www.nndb.com/people/573/
000023504
(accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits

Berners-Lee portrait courtesy of Tim Berners-Lee and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

Contributors

Amy van der Hiel.

Knowledge Classification

Melvil Dewey (1851–1931): Dewey Decimal Classification System (DDC), 1876

References

BrainyMedia.com. 2008. “Melvil Dewey Quotes.” Brainy Quote. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/m/melvil_dewey.html (accessed June 2, 2008).

Dewey, Melvil. 1876. “The Profession.” American Library Journal 1. [Quotation]

Foskett, Anthony Charles. 1973. The Universal Decimal Classification. London: Clive Bingley Ltd.

OCLC. 2008. “Melvil Dewey Biography.” OCLC. http://www.oclc.org/dewey/resources/biography (accessed June 2, 2008).

Wiegand, Wayne A. 1996. Irrepressible Reformer: A Biography of Melvil Dewey. Chicago: American Library Association.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2008. “List of Dewey Decimal Classes.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Dewey_Decimal_classes (accessed June 2, 2008).

Image Credits

Dewey portrait: public domain image.

Paul Otlet (1868-1944) and Henri-Marie Lafontaine (1854-1943)

References

Nobel Web AB. 2009. “Henri La Fontaine: The Nobel Peace Prize 1913.” http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1913/fontaine-bio.html (accessed August 12, 2009).

Noorederlicht (production company). 1998. Alle Kennis van de Wereld (Biography of Paul Otlet). http://www.archive.org/details/paulotlet (accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits

Otlet portrait: public domain image; search assisted by Michael Buckland of the University of California, Berkeley.

Lafontaine portrait: public domain image; search assisted by the Library of Congress.

Designing the Universal Decimal Index (UDC), 1905

References

Otlet, Paul. “Encyclopedia Mundaneum Universalis.” Unfinished manuscript.

Otlet, Paul. 1935. Monde; Essai d’Universalisme. Brussels: Editions Mundaneum.

Wright, Alex. 2003. “Forgotten Forefather: Paul Otlet.” Boxes and Arrows, November. http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/forgotten_forefather_paul_otlet (accessed October 30, 2007).

Contributors

Charles van den Heuvel.

The Mundaneum, 1910

References

Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, s.v. “Henri-Marie Lafontaine.” http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/327724/Henri-Marie-Lafontaine (accessed March 30, 2010).

Otlet’s “Traité de Documentation,” 1934

References

Otlet, Paul. 1934. Traité de Documentation: Le Livre sur le Livre—Théorie et Pratique. Brussels: Editiones Mundaneum, Palais Mondial, Van Keerberghen & Fils. [Quotation]

Otlet, Paul. 1990. “The Science of Bibliography and Documentation.” In The International Organization and Dissemination of Knowledge: Selected Essays of Paul Otlet, edited and translated by W. Boyd Rayward. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Rayward, W. Boyd. 1994. “Visions of Xanadu: Paul Otlet (1868–1944) and Hypertext.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45, 4: 235–250. http://people.lis.uiuc.edu/~wrayward/otlet/xanadu.htm (accessed October 30, 2007).

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2004. “European Modernism and the Information Society: Informing the Present, Understanding the Past.” Conference hosted by the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, May 6–8, 2005. http://www.lis.uiuc.edu/conferences/EuroMod.05 (accessed October 30, 2007).

van den Heuvel, Charles. 2007. “Building Society, Constructing Knowledge, Weaving the Web: Otlet’s Visualizations of a Global Information Society and His Concept of a Universal Civilization. In European Modernism and the Information Society, edited by W. Boyd Rayward, 127–153. London: Ashgate Publishers.

Wright, Alex. 2003. “Forgotten Forefather: Paul Otlet.” Boxes and Arrows, November. http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/forgotten_forefather_paul_otlet (accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits

Two images, see Otlet 1934.

Contributors

Ron Day and Charles van den Heuvel.

Knowledge Interlinkage

References

Rozenberg, Michal, Miri Munk, and Anat Kainan. 2006. “A Talmud Page as a Metaphor of a Scientific Text.” International Journal of Qualitative Methods 5, 4.

Weinberg, Bella Hass. 1997. “The Earliest Hebrew Citation Indexes.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 48, 4: 318–330.

Contributors

Blaise Cronin.

Frank Shepard–Legal Citation Index, 1873

References

Garfield, Eugene. 1954. “Association of Ideas Techniques in Documentation: Shepardizing the Literature of Science.” http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/assocofideasy1954.html (accessed June 10. 2008).

Shapiro, Fred R. 1992. “Origins of Bibliometrics, Citation Indexing, and Citation Analysis: The Neglected Legal Literature.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 43, 5: 337–339.

Shepard, Frank. 1875. Illinois Citations: Legal Citators. Chicago: Author.

Image Credits

Shepard portrait used with permission of LexisNexis; search assisted by Jane Morris.

Public domain images of Shepard’s Citations arranged and digitized by Peter A. Hook, Indiana University.

Contributors

Peter A. Hook.

Eugene Garfield (b. 1925): “Citation Indexes for Science,” 1955

References

Adair, W. C. 1955. “Citation Indexes for Scientific Literature.” American Documentation 6: 31–32. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/ adaircitationindexesforscientificliterature1955.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

Cronin, Blaise, and Helen Barsky Atkins, eds. 2000. The Web of Knowledge: A Festschrift in Honor of Eugene Garfield. ASIS Monograph Series. Medford, NJ: Information Today.

Garfield, Eugene. 1955. “Citation Indexes for Science: A New Dimension in Documentation through Association of Ideas.” Science 122: 108–111.

Garfield, Eugene. 1955. “Needed—a National Science Intelligence and Documentation Center.” Paper presented at the Symposium on Storage and Retrieval of Scientific Information of the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Atlanta, Georgia, December 28, 1955. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/natlsciinteldoccenter.html (accessed October 30, 2007). [Quotation]

Garfield, Eugene. 1974. “ISI’s Atlas of Science May Help Students in Choice of Career in Science.” Essays of an Information Scientist 1974-1976 2, 38: 311–314. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v2p311y1974-76.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Garfield, Eugene. 1981. ISI Atlas of Science: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 1979–1980, 112. Philadelphia, PA: ISI.

Garfield, Eugene. 1987. “Mapping the World of Nutrition: Citation Analysis Helps Digest the Menu of Current Research.” Essays of an Information Scientist 10: 349. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v10p349y1987.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Garfield, Eugene. 1988. “Mapping the World of Epidemiology: Part 2. The Techniques of Tracking Down Disease. Essays of an Information Scientist 11: 290. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v11p290y1988.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Garfield, Eugene, and James E. Shea, eds. 1984. ISI Atlas of Science: Biotechnology and Molecular Genetics 1981/82. Philadelphia: ISI.

Marshakova, Irina V. 1973. “A System of Document Connections Based on References.” Scientific and Technical Information Serial of VINITI 6: 3–8.

Small, Henry. 1973. “Co-Citation in Scientific Literature: A New Measure of the Relationship between Publications.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 24: 265–269.

Szigeti, Helen. 2001. “The ISI Web of Knowledge Platform: Current and Future Directions.” Published online by ISI Inc, Philadelphia, PA.

Wells, Herbert George. 1938. World Brain. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Wouters, Paul. 1999. “The Citation Culture.” PhD diss., University of Amsterdam. http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/wouters/wouters.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits

Garfield portrait courtesy of Eugene Garfield and Thomson Reuters.

Larry Page (b. 1973) and Sergey Brin (b. 1973): Google 1998

References

Brin, Sergey, and Lawrence Page. 1998. “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine.” Proceedings of the 7th International World Wide Web Conference. http://infolab.stanford.edu/~backrub/google.html (accessed September 30, 2009).

Darnton, Robert. 2009. Google and the New Digital Future. The New York Review of Books 56: 20. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/23518 (accessed January 25, 2010).

Giles, C. Lee, Kurt D. Bollacker, and Steve Lawrence. 1998. “CiteSeer: An Automatic Citation Indexing System.” Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Conference on Digital Libraries (DL’98), edited by Ian Witten, Rob Akscyn, and Frank M. Shipman III, 89–98. New York: ACM Press. http://clgiles.ist.psu.edu/papers/DL-1998-citeseer.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Page, Lawrence, Sergey Brin, Rajeev Motwani, and Terry Winograd. 1998. “The PageRank Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to the Web.” Stanford Digital Library Technologies Project. http://infolab.stanford.edu/~backrub/pageranksub.ps (accessed June 2, 2008).

Toobin, Jeffrey. 2007. “Google’s Moon Shot.” The New Yorker, February 5. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/02/05/070205fa_fact_toobin (accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits

Page and Brin portraits: Google. “Corporate Information: Management.” http://www.google.com/corporate/execs.html (accessed October 30, 2007). (c) Google Inc., 2007. Reprinted with Permission.

Knowledge Visualization

References

Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein. 1977. A Pattern of Language. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bendavid-Val, Leah, ed. 2003. Through the Lens: National Geographic’s Greatest Photographs. New York: National Geographic.

Berghaus, Heinrich Karl Whilhelm. 1862. Physikalischer Atlas oder Sammlung von Karten, auf denen die hauptsächlichsten Erscheinungen der anorganischen und organischen Natur nach ihrer geographischen Verbreitung und Vertheilung bildlich dargestellt sind. Gotha, Germany: Verlag von Justus Perthes.

Holmes, Nigel. 1993. The Best in Diagrammatic Graphics. London: Quarto Publishing.

Kepes, Gyorgy. 1956. The New Landscape in Art and Science. Chicago: Paul Theobald and Co.

Klee, Paul. 1961. The Thinking Eye. New York: G. Wittenborn.

Otlet, Paul. 1990. “Transformations in the Bibliographical Apparatus of the Sciences.” In The International Organization and Dissemination of Knowledge: Selected Essays of Paul Otlet, edited and translated by W. Boyd Rayward, 78. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Williats, John. 1997. Art and Representation: New Principles in the Analysis of Pictures. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kees Boeke (1884–1966): “Cosmic View: The Universe in 40 Jumps,” 1957

References

Billington, James H. 1997. The Work of Charles and Ray Eames: A Legacy of Invention, 15–26. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.

Boeke, Kees. 1957. Cosmic View: The Universe in 40 Jumps. http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Boeke/Boekem14.html (accessed January 1, 2008). [Quotation]

Boeke, Kees. 1957. Cosmic View: The Universe in 40 Jumps. New York: John Day Company. http://www.vendian.org/mncharity/cosmicview (accessed October 30, 2007).

Eames, Lucia (dba Eames Office). 2006. “Celebrate Powers of 10 Day.” http://powersof10.com (accessed October 30, 2007).

Morrison, Philip, Phylis Morrison, and the Office of Charles and Ray Eames. 1983. Powers of Ten: A Book about the Relative Size of Things in the Universe and the Effect of Adding Another Zero. New York: W. H. Freeman & Company.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2007. “Kees Boeke.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kees_Boeke (accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits

Boeke portrait: public domain image.

Cosmic View, see Boeke 1957.

Derek John de Solla Price (1922–1983): “Networks of Scientific Papers,” 1965

References

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1961. Science Since Babylon. New Haven: Yale University Press.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. “Networks of Scientific Papers.” Science, 149, 3683: 510–515.

Garfield, Eugene. 1984 “A Tribute to Derek John de Solla Price: A Bold, Iconoclastic Historian of Science.” Essays of an Information Scientist 7: 213–217. http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v7p213y1984.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007). [Quotation. p. 241]

Garfield, Eugene. “Essays on Derek John de Solla Price.” http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/price/derekprice.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

Tukey, J. W. 1962. “Keeping Research in Contact with the Literature: Citation Indices and Beyond.” Journal of Chemical Documentation 2, 34-37.

Xhignesse, Louis V., and Charles E. Osgood. 1967. “Bibliographical Citation Characteristics of the Psychological Journal Network in 1950 and in 1960.” American Psychologist 22, 9: 778-791.

Image Credits

Price portrait: public domain image, released by Mark de Solla Price, photo by Malcolm S. Kirk.

Edward Tufte (b. 1943): “The Visual Display of Quantitative Information,” 1983

References

Smith, Fran. 2007. “Intelligent Designs: When Information Needs to be Communicated, Edward Tufte Demands both Truth and Beauty.” Stanford Magazine, March/April.

Tufte, Edward R. 1983. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 1997. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Edward R. 2006. Beautiful Evidence. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Zachry, Mark, and Charlotte Thralls. 2004. “An Interview with Edward R. Tufte.” Technical Communication Quarterly 13, 4: 447-462. [Quotation, p. 452]

Image Credits

Tufte portrait used by permission.

Man-Machine Symbiosis

References

Preece, J., Y. Rogers, and H. Sharp. 2002. Human-Computer Interaction: Concepts and Design. Boston: Addison-Wesley.

Shneiderman, Ben, and Catherine Plaisant. 2009. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. 5th ed. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Ada Lovelace (1815–1852): First Computer Program, 1843

References

Ada Project. 2007. “Ada Byron King.” Women at SCS, Carnegie Mellon University. http://www.cs.yale.edu/homes/tap/ada-lovelace.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

Baum, Joan. 1986. The Calculating Passion of Ada Byron. Hamden, CT: Archon Books.

Moore, Doris Langley. 1977. Ada: Countess of Lovelace. London: John Murray. [Quotation]

Toole, Betty A. 1992. Ada, the Enchantress of Numbers. Mill Valley, CA: Strawberry Press.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2007. “Ada Lovelace.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ada_Lovelace (accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits

Lovelace portrait: public domain image, published November 1, 1838.

Vannevar Bush (1890–1974): Memex, 1945

References

Buckland, Michael K. 1992. “Emanuel Goldberg, Electronic Document Retrieval, and Vannevar Bush’s Memex.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 43, 4: 284–294.

Bush, Vannevar. 1945. “As We May Think.” The Atlantic Monthly 176, 1: 101–108.

Bush, Vannevar. 1945. “As We May Think.” Life Magazine, November 19.

Bush, Vannevar. 1945. Science, the Endless Frontier: A Report to the President of the United States of America. http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/nsf50/vbush1945.htm (accessed October 30, 2007). [Quotation]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2007. “Vannevar Bush.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vannevar_Bush (accessed October 30, 2007).

Zachary, G. Pascal. 1997. Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer of the American Century. New York: Free Press.

Image Credits

Bush portrait courtesy of the National Science Foundation.

Cyclops camera, mechanical supersecretary, and Memex images, see Bush 1945 (November 19).

Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1992): First Compiler, 1952

References

History of Computing Project. 2004. “Grace Murray Hopper.” http://www.thocp.net/biographies/hopper_grace.html (accessed October 30, 2007). [Quotation]

Hopper, Grace. 1952. “The Education of a Computer.” Proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery Conference, Pittsburgh, May. Reprinted in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 1998, 9, 3–4: 271–281.

Whitelaw, Nancy. 1995. Grace Hopper: Programming Pioneer. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.

Image Credits

Hopper portrait: public domain image from the Library of Congress.

J. C. R. Licklider (1915–1990): “Man-Computer Symbiosis,” 1960

References

Campbell-Kelly, Martin. 2006. “From World Brain to the World Wide Web.” Annual Gresham College BSHM Lecture, November 9. http://www.gresham.ac.uk/event.asp?PageId=39&EventId=486 (accessed October 30, 2007).

Hauben, Michael, and Ronda Hauben. 1995-1996. “Netizens: An Anthology,” ch. 5-7. http://www.columbia.edu/~hauben/netbook (accessed February 5, 2010).

Licklider, Joseph Carl Robnett. 1960. “Man-Computer Symbiosis.” IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics HFE-1: 4–11. http://groups.csail.mit.edu/medg/people/psz/Licklider.html (accessed October 30, 2007). [Quotation, Summary]

Licklider, Joseph Carl Robnett. 1965. Libraries of the Future. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Licklider, J.C.R., and R. W. Taylor. 1968. “The Computer as a Communication Device.” Science and Technology, April: 21–31.

Rheingold, Howard. 2000. Tools for Thought: The History and Future of Mind-Expanding Technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010. “J. C. R. Licklider.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J.C.R._Licklider (accessed February 8, 2010).

Image Credits

Licklider portrait: public domain image.

Douglas C. Engelbart (b. 1925): “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework,” 1962

References

Bootstrap Alliance. 2008. “Bootstrap Institute: History in Pictures.” http://www.bootstrap.org/chronicle/pix/pix.html (accessed June 2, 2008).

Engelbart, Douglas C. 1962. “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework.” Summary Report AFOSR-3233, October. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA. [Quotation, Introduction: A. General]

Sutherland, I. 1965. “The Ultimate Display.” Proceedings of IFIP 65, 2: 506–508, 582–583.

Image Credits

Engelbart portrait, hardware and interface images are courtesy of Douglas Engelbart and Bootstrap Alliance, see Bootstrap Alliance 2008.

Global Brain

References

Bernal, John D. 1939. The Social Function of Science. London: Routledge & Kegan Ltd.

Bloom, H. 2000. Global Brain: The Evolution of Mass Mind from the Big Bang to the 21st Century. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

De Reuck, A., and J. Knight, eds. 1967. Communication in Science: Documentation and Automation. London: Churchill.

Garfield, Eugene, and Irving H. Sher. 1963. Science Citation Index. Philadelphia: Institute for Scientific Information.

Garvey, William D., and Belver C. Griffith. 1964. “Scientific Information Exchange in Psychology: The Immediate Dissemination of Research Findings Is Described for One Science.” Science 146, 3652: 1655–1659.

Goffman, W., and K. S. Warren. 1969. Dispersion of Papers Among Journals Based on a Mathematical Analysis of 2 Diverse Medical Literatures.” Nature 221, 5187: 1205–1207.

Herring, C. 1968. “Distill or Drown—Need for Reviews.” Physics Today 21, 9: 27.

McDougall, William. 1920. The Group Mind. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.

Merton, Robert K. 1969. “The Matthew Effect in Science. The Reward and Communication Systems of the Science are Considered” Science 159, 3810: 56–63.

Moravcsik, Michael J., and Simon Pasternack. 1966. “A Debate on Preprint Exchange.” Physics Today 19: 60–73.

Watson, J. 1968. The Double Helix. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Ziman, J. M. 1968. Public Knowledge. London: Cambridge University Press.

Ziman, J. M. 1969. “Information, Communication, Knowledge.” Nature 224: 318–324.

H. G. Wells (1866–1946): “World Brain,” 1938

References

Abbot, Robert. 1999. The World as Information: Overload and Personal Design, 110. Exeter, UK: Intellect Books.

Wells, H. G. 1923. The Outline of History, Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind. 4th ed., vol. 4, 1305. New York: The Review of Reviews Company. [Quotation, Chapter 41]

Wells, Herbert George. 1897. The Invisible Man. London: C. Arthur Pearson.

Wells, Herbert George. 1901. First Men in the Moon. London: George Newnes.

Wells, Herbert George. 1938. World Brain. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Image Credits

Wells portrait: public domain image, assistance provided by The Lilly Library, Indiana University.

Buckminster Fuller (1895–1983): World Game, 1960s

References

Buckminster Fuller Institute. 2007. “Introduction to Buckminster Fuller’s World Game.” http://www.bfi.org/taxonomy/term/170/all (accessed October 30, 2007). [Quotation, make the world work]

Fuller, Buckminster. 1969. Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Fuller, Buckminster. 1973. Earth, Inc. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press.

Fuller, Buckminster. 1981. Critical Path, xxv, 124. New York: St. Martin’s Press. [Quotation, Introduction, War is obsolete.]

Fuller, Buckminster, and E. J. Applewhite. 1975. Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking. New York: Macmillan.

Fuller, Buckminster, and Anwar Dil. 1983. Humans in Universe. New York: Mouton.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2007. “Buckminster Fuller.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckminster_Fuller (accessed October 30, 2007). [Quotation, benefiting all humanity]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2007. “World Game.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Game (accessed October 30, 2007).

Zung, Thomas T. K., ed. 2001. Buckminster Fuller: Anthology for the New Millennium. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Image Credits

Fuller portrait courtesy of the estate of R. Buckminster Fuller.

James Burke (b. 1936): Connections 1979

References

Burke, James. 1978. Connections. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Burke, James. 2000. Circles: Fifty Round Trips Through History Technology Science Culture. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Burke, James. 2000. The Knowledge Web: From Electronic Agents to Stonehenge and Back—and Other Journeys through Knowledge. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Delio, Michelle. “Help Build the Web of Knowledge.” CondéNet, Inc: Wired. http://www.wired.com/culture/lifestyle/news/2002/05/52594 (accessed October 30, 2007).

James Burke Institute. 2007. “James Burke Institute’s Knowledge Web.” http://www.k-web.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

James Burke Institute. 2007. “James Burke Institute’s Knowledge Web—Vision.” http://k-web.org/public_html/vision.htm (accessed October 30, 2007). [Quotation].

Wikimedia Foundation. 2007. “James Burke (science historian).” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Burke_(science_historian) (accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits

Burke portrait courtesy of James Burke.

Contributors

Luis Rocha, Ronald E. Day, Blaise Cronin, Lokman I. Meho, Kevin W. Boyack, Peter A. Hook, Patrick McKercher, Stevan Harnad, and Ben Shneiderman.

26

Milestones in Mapping Science

All references in this section are organized in order of their appearance in the timeline. For each double page spread all algorithm, visualization, tool, and book references are listed together with image credits.

Image Credits

Milestones in Mapping Science Timeline: Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept). Image credits for individual photos and graphics are given by section.

Introduction

References

Freeman, Linton C. 2000. “Visualizing Social Networks.” Journal of Social Structure 1. http://www.cmu.edu/joss/content/articles/volume1/Freeman.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

Börner, Katy, Soma Sanyal, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2007. “Network Science.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, vol. 41: 537–607. Medford, NJ: Information Today/American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Börner, Katy, Chaomei Chen, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2003. “Visualizing Knowledge Domains.” In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, edited by Blaise Cronin, vol. 37: 179–255. Medford, NJ: Information Today/American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Hearst, Marti A. 1999. “User Interfaces and Visualization.” In Modern Information Retrieval, edited by R. Baeza-Yates and B. Ribeiro-Neto, 257–323. New York: ACM Press and Addison-Wesley. http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/~hearst/irbook/chapters/chap10.html (accessed January 1, 2008).

Timeline: 1930–1960

Algorithms

References

Thurstone, L. L. 1931. “Multiple Factor Analysis.” Psychological Review 38: 406–427.

Tryon, R. C. 1939. Cluster Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Shannon, C. E. 1948. “A Mathematical Theory of Communication.” The Bell System Technical Journal 27, 379–423, 623–656.

Visualizations

References

Moreno, Jacob L. 1933. “Emotions Mapped by New Geography.” New York Times, April 3, 17.

Moreno, Jacob L. 1934. Who Shall Survive? Washington, DC: Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company.

Lundberg, G. A., and M. Steele. 1938. “Social Attraction-Patterns in a Village.” Sociometry 1: 375–419.

Wells, Herbert George. 1938. World Brain. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Bernal, John D. 1939. The Social Function of Science. London: Routledge & Kegan Ltd.

Northway, M. L. 1940. “A Method for Depicting Social Relationships Obtained by Sociometric Testing.” Sociometry 3: 144–150.

Ellingham, H.J.T. 1948. “Divisions of Natural Science and Technology.” Reports and Papers of the Royal Society Scientific Information Conference. London: The Royal Society, Burlington House.

Bock, R. D., and S. Z. Husain. 1952. “Factors of the Tele: A Preliminary Report.” Sociometry 15: 206–219.

Allen, Gordon. “Citation Network.” Citation Index to Genetics and General Science Literature, edited by Eugene Garfield. Research proposal by the Institute for Scientific Information, submitted July 15, 1960 to the National Science Foundation.

Image Credits—Maps

“Sociometry” is a public domain image; research assistance by Jaime Panzanella at the American Sociological Association and the Moreno family.

“Lady Bountiful” is a public domain image; research assistance from the American Sociological Association.

“World Encyclopedia” reproduced with permission of Ayer Publishers.

“1939 Map of Science” reproduced from The Social Function of Science, by permission of Taylor and Francis Books.

“Target Sociogram” is a public domain image; research assistance by Jaime Panzanella at the American Sociological Assocation.

Ellingham’s “Natural Science and Technology Chart,” © The Royal Society, used by permission.

“Plot of Schoolchildren” is a public domain image; research assistance by Jaime Panzanella at the American Sociological Assocation.

Allen’s “First Citation Network” reproduced from Eugene Garfield’s “Citation Index to Genetics and General Science Literature,” 1960, by permission of Thomson Reuters.

Image Credits—Portraits

Thurstone portrait of Thurstone is a public domain image.

Northway portrait courtesy of the Trent University Archives.

Allen portrait courtesy of College Archives and Special Collections, SUNY Brockport Drake Memorial Library.

Books

References

Otlet, Paul. 1934. Traité de Documentation: Le Livre sur le Livre—Théorie et Pratique. Brussels: Editiones Mundaneum, Palais Mondial, Van Keerberghen & Fils.

Moreno, Jacob L. 1934. Who Shall Survive? Washington, DC: Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company.

Wells, Herbert George. 1938. World Brain. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Bernal, John D. 1939. The Social Function of Science. London: Routledge & Kegan Ltd.

Bradford, Samuel C. 1948. Documentation. London: Crosby Lockwood.

Livingstone, David. 1950. Putting Science in Its Place: Geographies of Scientific Knowledge. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Brillouin, Léon. 1956. Science and Information Theory. New York: Academic Press.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1961. Science Since Babylon. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Dijksterhuis, E. J. 1961. The Mechanisation of the World Picture, C. Dikshoom, trans. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Timeline: 1960–1982

Algorithms

References

Kessler, Michael M. 1963. “Bibliographic Coupling Between Scientific Papers.” American Documentation 14, 1: 10–25.

Tutte, W. T. 1963. “How to Draw a Graph.” Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society 13, 3: 743–768.

Ward, Joe H. 1963. “Hierarchical Grouping to Optimize an Objective Function.” Journal of American Statistical Association 58, 301: 236–244.

Kruskal, J. B. 1964. “Multidimensional Scaling: A Numerical Method.” Psychometrika 29: 115–129.

Kruskal, J. B. 1964. “Multidimensional Scaling by Optimizing Goodness of Fit to a Nonmetric Hypothesis.” Psychometrika 29: 1–27.

Kruskal, J. B., and M. Wish. 1978. Multidimensional Scaling. London: Sage.

Torgerson, W. S. 1952. “Multidimensional Scaling: 1. Theory and Method.” Psychometrika 17: 401–419.

Shepard, R. N. 1962. “Analysis of Proximities: Multidimensional Scaling with an Unknown Distance Function I & II.” Psychometrika 27: 125–139, 219–246.

Levenshtein, V. I. 1965. “Binary Codes Capable of Correcting Spurious Insertions and Deletions of Ones (original in Russian).” Russian Problemy Peredachi Informatsii 1: 12–25.

Salton, Gerard. 1971. “Automatic Indexing Using Bibliographic Citations.” Journal of Documentation 27: 98–110.

Anthonisse, J. M. 1971. “The Rush in a Directed Graph.” Technical Report BN9/71. Amsterdam: Stichting Mathematisch Centrum.

Freeman, L. C. 1977. “A Set of Measures of Centrality Based on Betweenness.” Sociometry 40, 1: 35-41.

Small, Henry. 1973. “Co-Citation in Scientific Literature: A New Measure of the Relationship between Publications.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 24: 265–269.

Marshakova, Irina V. 1973. “A System of Document Connections Based on References.” Scientific and Technical Information Serial of VINITI 6: 3–8.

Salton, G., C. Yang, and A. Wong. 1975. “A Vector Space Model for Automatic Indexing.” Communications of the ACM 18, 1: 613–620.

Lee, R.C.T., J. R. Slagle, and H. Blum. 1977. “A Triangulation Method for the Sequential Mapping of Points from N-Space to Two-Space.” IEEE Transactions on Computers 26, 3: 288–292.

White, H. D. 1981. “Cocited Author Retrieval Online: An Experiment with the Social-Indicators Literature.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 32 1: 16–21.

White, H. D., and B. C. Griffith. 1981. “Author Cocitation: A Literature Measure of Intellectual Structure.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 32 3: 163–171.

Visualizations

References

Garfield, Eugene, Irving H. Sher, and Richard J. Torpie. 1964. “The Use of Citation Data in Writing the History of Science.” Report for Air Force Office of Scientific Research under contract AF49 (638)-1256. Philadelphia, PA: Institute for Scientific Information. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/useofcitdatawritinghistofsci.pdf (accessed September 30, 2009).

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. “Networks of Scientific Papers.” Science 149, 3683: 510–515.

Narin, Francis. 1968. “TRACES—Technology in Retrospect and Critical Events in Science.” National Science Foundation Contract NSF C-535, IIT Research Institute, vols. 1 and 2.

Small, Henry, and E. Greenlee. 1986. “Collagen Research in the 1970s.” Scientometrics 10, 1–2: 95–117.

Small, Henry. 1973. “Co-Citation in Scientific Literature: A New Measure of the Relationship between Publications.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 24: 265–269.

White, Howard D., and Belver C. Griffith. 1981. “Author Cocitation: A Literature Measure of Intellectual Structure.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 32 3: 163–171.

Griffith, Belver C., ed. 1980. Key Papers in Information Science. White Plains, NY: Knowledge Industry Publications.

Marshakova, Irina V. 1981. “Citation Networks in Information Science.” Scientometrics 3, 1: 13–26.

Marshakova, Irina V. 1973. “A System of Document Connections Based on References.” Scientific and Technical Information Serial of VINITI 6: 3–8.

Garfield, Eugene. 1981. ISI Atlas of Science: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 1979–1980, 112. Philadelphia, PA: ISI.

Image Credits—Maps

See Garfield et al. 1964, courtesy of Thomson Reuters.

See de Solla Price 1965, courtesy of Eugene Garfield.

See Narin 1968, public domain.

See Small 1986, with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media.

See Small 1973, reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

White images, see White and Griffith 1981; reproduced from Howard D. White’s files.

See Marshakova 1981, 1973, with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media

See Garfield 1981, courtesy of Thomson Reuters.

Image Credits—Portraits

Garfield portrait courtesy of Eugene Garfield and Thomson Reuters.

de Solla Price portrait is a public domain image by Malcolm S. Kirk and released into the public domain by Mark de Solla Price.

Narin portrait courtesy of Francis Narin.

Small portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

White portrait courtesy of Howard D. White.

Tools

References

ESRI. 2008. ESRI Home Page. http://www.esri.com (accessed June 2, 2008).

Image Credits

Screenshot of Geographic Information System, courtesy of ESRI.

Books

References

Kuhn, Thomas Samuel. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Rogers, Everett M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1965. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

Licklider, Joseph Carl Robnett. 1965. Libraries of the Future. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cronin, Blaise, ed. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology. Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. (Published annually 1966–2011).

Hägerstrand, Torsten. 1967. Innovation Diffusion as a Spatial Process. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Nalimov, Vasily V., and Z. M. Mulchenko. 1969. Naukometriya: Izuchenie Razvitiya Kauki ka Informatsionnogo Protessa [Scientometrics: The Study of the Development of Science as an Information Process]. Moscow: Nauka.

Dobrov, G. M., V. N. Klimenjuk, L. P. Smirnov, and A. A. Savelev. 1969. Potensial Nauki [Capacity of Science]. Kiev: Naukova Dumka.

Dobrov, G. M. 1970. Aktuelle Probleme der Wissenschaftswissenschaft. Berlin: Dietz-Verlag.

Menard, Henry W. 1971. Science: Growth and Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Crane, Diana. 1972. Invisible Colleges: Diffusion of Knowledge in Scientific Communities. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

National Science Board. 1972. Science Indicators 1972. Washington, DC: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Merton, Robert. 1973. The Sociology of Science. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Garfield, Eugene. 1979. Citation Indexing: Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology, and Humanities. New York: Wiley.

Laitko, H. 1979. Wissenschaft als allgemeine Arbeit. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.

Popper, Karl. 1979. Truth, Rationality, and the Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann.

Institute for Scientific Information. 1981. ISI Atlas of Science—Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 1978/80. Philadelphia: ISI.

Fuller, Buckminster. 1981. Critical Path. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Timeline: 1982–1998

Algorithms

References

Garfield, Eugene. 1980. “ABCs of Cluster Mapping. Part 1. Most Active Fields in the Life Sciences in 1978.” Essays of an Information Scientist 4, 1979–1980: 634. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v4p634y1979-80.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

McCain, K. W. 1991. “Mapping Economics Through the Journal Literature: An Experiment in Journal Cocitation Analysis.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42, 4: 290–296.

Callon, M., J. P. Courtial, W. A. Turner, and S. Bauin. 1983. “From Translations to Problematic Networks: An Introduction to Co-Word Analysis.” Social Science Information 22: 191–235.

Eades, P. 1984. “A Heuristic for Graph Drawing.” Congressus Numerantium 42: 149–160.

Kohonen, Teuvo. 1995. Self-Organizing Maps. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Kamada, T. and S. Kawai. 1989. “An Algorithm for Drawing General Undirected Graphs.” Information Processing Letters 31: 7–15.

Garfield, Eugene and Henry G. Small. 1989. “Identifying the Changing Frontiers of Science.” Conference Proceedings of Innovation: At the Crossroads Between Science and Technology, edited by M. Kranzberg, Y. Elkana, and Z. Tadmor, 51–65. Haifa, Israel: The S. Neaman Press. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/362/362.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

Garfield, Eugene. 1982. “Computer-Aided Historiography—How ISI Uses Cluster Tracking to Monitor the ‘Vital Signs’ of Science.” Essays of an Information Scientist 5: 473. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v5p473y1981-82.pdf (accessed February 9, 2010).

Schvaneveldt, R., ed. 1990. Pathfinder Associative Networks: Studies in Knowledge Organization. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corp.

Deerwester, S., S. T. Dumais, G. W. Furnas, T. K. Landauer, and R. Harshman. 1990. “Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 41, 6: 391–407.

McCain, K. W. 1991. “Mapping Economics Through the Journal Literature: An Experiment in Journal Cocitation Analysis.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42, 4: 290–296.

Johnson, B., and Ben Shneiderman. 1991. “Treemaps: A Space-Filling Approach to the Visualization of Hierarchical Information Structures.” Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE Visualization Conference, 284–291, San Diego, CA.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1992. “Tree Visualization with Tree-Maps: 2-D Space-Filling Approach.” ACM Transactions on Graphics 11 1: 92–99. See also http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/treemap-history (accessed February 10, 2010).

Fruchterman, T. M.J., and E. M. Reingold. 1991. “Graph Drawing by Force-Directed Placement.” Software: Practice and Experience 21, 11: 1129–1164.

Landauer, T. K., P. W. Foltz, and D. Laham. 1998. “Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis.” Discourse Processes 25: 259–284.

Small, Henry. 1995. “Navigating the Citation Network.” Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science 32: 118–126, Chicago, October 9–12.

Small, Henry. 1997. “Update on Science Mapping: Creating Large Document Spaces.” Scientometrics 38 2: 275–293.

Swanson, D. R. and N. R. Smalheiser. 1997. “An Interactive System for Finding Complementary Literatures: A Stimulus to Scientific Discovery.” Artificial Intelligence 91: 183–203.

Visualizations

References

White, Howard D., and Belver C. Griffith. 1981. “Author Co-Citation: A Literature Measure of Intellectual Structure.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 32, 3: 163–171. “A Map of Information Science” (p. 165), reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Halasz, Frank G., Thomas P. Moran, and Randall H. Trigg. 1987. “NoteCards in a Nutshell.” Proceedings of the ACM CHI+GI’87 Human Factors in Computing Systems and Graphics Interface Conference, edited by J. M. Carroll and P. P. Tanner, 45–52. New York: ACM.

Ennis, J. G. 1992. “The Social Organization of Sociological Knowledge: Modeling the Intersection of Specialties.” American Sociological Review 57, 2: 259–265.

Kohonen, Teuvo. 1995. Self-Organizing Maps. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

WEBSOM. 1999. “WEBSOM map: Million documents.” http://websom.hut.fi/websom/milliondemo/html/root.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

Mackinlay, J. D., R. Rao, and S. K. Card. 1995. “An Organic User Interface for Searching Citation Links.” Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Denver, CO, May 7–11. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi95/Electronic/documnts/papers/jdm_bdy.htm (accessed October 30, 2007).

Chen, Hsinchun, Andrea L. Houston, Robin R. Sewell, and Bruce R. Schatz. 1998. “Internet Browsing and Searching: User Evaluations of Category Map and Concept Space Techniques.” Special Issue (Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Emerging Information Systems Applications), Journal of the American Society for Information Science 49, 7: 582–603.

Novak, Joseph D. 1998. Learning, Creating, and Using Knowledge: Concept Maps as Facilitative Tools in Schools and Corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Johnson, B., and Ben Shneiderman. 1991. “Treemaps: A Space-Filling Approach to the Visualization of Hierarchical Information Structures.” Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE Visualization Conference, 284–291, San Diego, CA.

Shneiderman, Ben. 1992. “Tree Visualization with Tree-Maps: 2-D Space-Filling Approach.” ACM Transactions on Graphics 11, 1: 92–99. See also http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/treemap-history (accessed February 10, 2010).

White, Howard D., and Katherine W. McCain. 1998. “Visualizing a Discipline: An Author Co-citation Analysis of Information Science, 1972–1995.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 49, 4: 327–355.

Image Credits—Maps

See White & Griffith 1981 (p. 165), reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

See Halasz et al. 1987, courtesy of PARC (Palo Alto Research Center, Inc.).

See Ennis 1992 (table 1, p. 261), reproduced by permission of James G. Ennis.

See Kohonen 1995, with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media.

See Mackinlay et al. 1995, © 1995 by Association for Computing Machinery, used by permission.

See Chen et al. 1998, courtesy of the Artificial Intelligence Lab, the University of Arizona.

See Novak 1998, courtesy of Joseph D. Novak.

See Shneiderman 1992, courtesy of the University of Maryland Human–Computer Interaction Lab.

See White and McCain 1998 (fig. 4), reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Image Credits—Portraits

White portrait courtesy of Howard D. White.

Moran portrait courtesy of Lydia Moran.

Trigg portrait courtesy of Randy Trigg.

Kohonen portrait courtesy of Teuvo Kohonen.

Mackinlay portrait courtesy of Jock Mackinlay.

Rao portrait courtesy of Ramana Rao.

Card portrait courtesy of Stuart Card.

Chen portrait courtesy of the Artificial Intelligence Lab, the University of Arizona.

Novak portrait courtesy of Joseph Novak.

Shneiderman portrait courtesy of John Consoli, University of Maryland.

Tools

References

Tobler, W. 1987. “An Experiment in Migration Mapping by Computer.” The American Cartographer 14, 2: 155–163.

Wise, J. A., J. J. Thomas, K. Pennock, D. Lantrip, M. Pottier, A. Schur, and V. Crow. 1995. “Visualizing the Non-Visual: Spatial Analysis and Interaction with Information from Text Documents.” Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, edited by Nahum Gershon and Stephen G. Eick, 51–58. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Batagelj, Vladimir, and Andrej Mrvar. 1998. “Pajek—Program for Large Network Analysis.” Connections 21, 2: 47–57.

Nooy, W. D., Andrej Mrvar, and Vladimir Batagelj. 2005. Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Swanson, D. R., and N. R. Smalheiser. 1997. “An Interactive System for Finding Complementary Literatures: A Stimulus to Scientific Discovery.” Artificial Intelligence 91: 183–203.

University of Illinois at Chicago. Arrowsmith Project Home Page. http://arrowsmith.psych.uic.edu/arrowsmith_uic (accessed February 10, 2010).

Image Credits

“The Sandbox for Analysis—Concepts and Methods” by W. Wright et al. ACM CHI 2006. Oculus nSpace Sandbox® is a registered trademark of Oculus Info, Inc.

Screenshot of “Science and Technology Dynamics Toolbox” courtesy of Loet Leydesdorff.

Screenshot of “In Flow” courtesy of Valdis Krebs.

Screenshot of “Flow Mapper” courtesy of Waldo Tobler.

Screenshot of “IN-SPIRE” courtesy of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Pajek courtesy of Andrej Mrvar, associate professor of Social Science Informatics, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences, Kardeljeva pl. 5, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, and Vladimir Batagelj, University of Ljubljana FMF–Department of Mathematics and IMFM–Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics Department for Theoretical Computer Science Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Screenshot of Swanson and Smalheiser 1997 taken by Kristin Reed, Indiana University.

Data Credits

Kepler, T., and W. Wright. 2004. “GeoTime Information Visualization.” IEEE InfoVis 2004. GeoTime is a registered trademark of Oculus Info, Inc. Used by permission.

Software Credits

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2005. “Software and Data of Loet Leydesdorff.” University of Amsterdam. http://users.fmg.uva.nl/lleydesdorff/software.htm (accessed October 30, 2007).

Krebs, Valdis. 2008. “InFlow—Software for Social Network Analysis & Organizational Network Analysis.” Orgnet.com. http://www.orgnet.com/inflow3.html (accessed June 2, 2008).

Regents of University of California, Santa Barbara, Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science. 2008. “Tobler’s Flow Mapper.” http://csiss.ncgia.ucsb.edu/clearinghouse/FlowMapper (accessed February 5, 2010). Tutorial from http://csiss.ncgia.ucsb.edu/clearinghouse/FlowMapper/MovementMapping.pdf(accessed June 2, 2008).

Berry, Michael, Theresa Do, Gavin O’Brien, Vijay Krishna, and Sowmini Varadhan. 1993. SVDPACKC (Version 1.0) User’s Guide. University of Tennessee Technical Reports. http://www.netlib.org/tennessee/ut-cs-93-194.ps (accessed March 11, 2010).

Books

References

Boorstin, Daniel J. 1983. The Discoverers. New York: Random House.

Irvine, John, and Ben R. Martin. 1984. Foresight in Science: Picking the Winners. London: Frances Pinter Pub Ltd.

Cronin, Blaise. 1984. The Citation Process: The Role and Significance of Citations in Scientific Communication. London: Taylor Graham.

Whitley, Richard. 1984. The Intellectual and Social Organization of the Sciences. New York: Oxford University Press.

Garfield, Eugene, and James E. Shea, eds. 1984. ISI Atlas of Science: Biotechnology and Molecular Genetics 1981/82 and Bibliographic Update for 1983/84. Philadelphia: ISI.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1984. Homo Academicus. Paris: Editions de Minuit.

de Solla Price, Derek J. 1986. Little Science, Big Science … and Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press.

Latour, Bruno, and Steve Woolgar. 1986. Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Callon, Michel, John Law, and Arie Rip, eds. 1986. Mapping the Dynamics of Science and Technology: Sociology of Science in the Real World. London: The Macmillan Press.

Yablonskij, Anatolij Ivanovich. 1986. Matematicheskije modeli v issledovanii nauki [Mathematical Models in the Exploration of Science]. Moscow: Nauka.

Garfield, Eugene. 1986. Essays of an Information Scientist: Towards Scientography, vol. 9. Philadelphia, PA: ISI Press.

Latour, Bruno. 1987. Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.

Dumenton, G. G. 1987. Seti nauchnykh kommunikatsii [Networks of Scientific Communication]. Moscow: Nauka.

van Raan, Anthony F. J., ed. 1988. Handbook of Quantitative Studies of Science and Technology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Marshakova, Irina V. 1988. Sistema Tsitirovaniya [System of Citing]. Moscow: Nauka.

Kara-Mursa, S. G. 1988. Problemy intensifikatsii nauki: tekhnologiya nauchnykh issledovanii [Problems of Intensification of Science: Scientific Research Technology]. Moscow: Nauka.

Turnbull, David. 1989. Maps Are Territories: Science Is an Atlas. Geelong, Australia: Deakin University Press.

Martin, Ben R., and John Irvine. 1989. Research Foresight: Priority-Setting in Science. London: Pinter Publishers.

Egghe, Leo, and Ronald Rousseau. 1990. Introduction to Informetrics: Quantitative Methods in Library, Documentation and Information Science. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Braam, Robert R., H. F. Moed, and A. F. J. van Raan. 1991. Mapping of Science: Foci of Intellectual Interest in Scientific Literature. Leiden, Netherlands: DSWO Press.

Borgman, C. L., ed. 1992. Scholarly Communication and Bibliometrics. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Scott, John. 1992. Network Analysis: A Handbook. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Cole, S. 1992. Making Science: Between Nature and Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wasserman, Stanley, and K. Faust. 1994. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences 8. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gibbons, Michael, Camille Limoges, Helga Nowotny, Simon Schwartzman, Peter Scott, and Martin Trow. 1994. The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. New York: Sage Publications.

Valente, Thomas W. 1995. Network Models of the Diffusion of Innovations. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Leydesdorff, Loet. 1995. The Challenge of Scientometrics: The Development, Measurement, and Self-Organization of Scientific Communications. Leiden: DSWO Press/Leiden University.

Nagurney, Anna, and Stavros Siokos. 1997. Financial Network: Statics and Dynamics. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Christensen, Clayton M. 1997. The Innovator’s Dilemma. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Timeline: 1998–2000

Algorithms

References

Giles, C. Lee, Kurt D. Bollacker, and Steve Lawrence. 1998. “CiteSeer: An Automatic Citation Indexing System.” Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Conference on Digital Libraries (DL’98), edited by Ian Witten, Rob Akscyn, and Frank M. Shipman III, 89–98. New York: ACM Press. http://clgiles.ist.psu.edu/papers/DL-1998-citeseer.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Brin, Sergey, and Lawrence Page. 1998. “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine.” Proceedings of the 7th International World Wide Web Conference. http://infolab.stanford.edu/~backrub/google.html (accessed September 30, 2009).

Page, Lawrence, Sergey Brin, Rajeev Motwani, and Terry Winograd. 1998. “The PageRank Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to the Web.” Stanford Digital Library Technologies Project. http://infolab.stanford.edu/~backrub/pageranksub.ps (accessed June 2, 2008).

Kleinberg, Jon M. 1998. “Authoritative Sources in a Hyperlinked Environment.” Proceedings of the Ninth Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, 668–677.

Kleinberg, Jon M. 1999. “Authoritative Sources in a Hyperlinked Environment.” Journal of the ACM 46, 5: 604–632.

Visualizations

References

SmartMoney. 2007. “Map of the Market.” http://www.smartmoney.com/marketmap (accessed February 10, 2010).

Dodge, Martin. 2001. “Show Me the Money: The Map of the Market.” Mappa.Mundi Magazine. http://mappa.mundi.net/maps/maps_023 (accessed October 30, 2007).

Chen, C., L. Thomas, J. Cole, and C. Chennawasin. 1999. “Representing the Semantics of Virtual Spaces.” IEEE Multimedia 6, 2: 54–63.

Small, Henry. 1999. “Visualizing Science by Citation Mapping.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 50, 9: 799–813.

Hobbs, Robert, and Mark Lombardi. 2003. Global Networks, edited by Judith Richards. New York: Independent Curators International.

Pierogi Gallery. 2005. “Mark Lombardi.” http://www.pierogi2000.com/flatfile/lombardi.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

MicroPatent. 2005. “Aureka: Turning Information into Actionable Intelligence.” Thomson Reuters Corporation. http://www.micropatent.com/static/aureka.htm; http://www.infovis.net/imagenes/T11_N2_Newsmaps.jpg (accessed October 30, 2007).

Leuski, Anton, and James Allan. 2000. “Lighthouse: Showing the Way to Relevant Information.” Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 2000, 125–130. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Börner, Katy, and Chaomei Chen. 2002. “Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries: Motivation, Utilization and Socio-Technical Challenges.” In Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, edited by Katy Börner and Chaomei Chen, vol. 2539: 1–9. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Image Credits—Maps

Map of the Market courtesy of Martin Wattenberg, IBM, and SmartMoney.com.

See Chen et al. 1999, copyright 1999, IEEE.

See Small 1999, reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Lombardi visualization, collection of Mr. and Mrs. Michael Scott. Photo by John Berens.

Aureka Software screenshot courtesy of Thomson Reuters.

Lighthouse System by Anton Leuski.

Screenshot of Visual Net, courtesy of Antarctica Systems, Inc.

Image Credits—Portraits

Wattenberg portrait courtesy of Jonathan Feinberg.

Chen portrait courtesy of Chaomei Chen.

Small portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Lombardi portrait courtesy of Pierogi Gallery, Brooklyn, NY.

References

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2006. “Quantitative Evaluation of Large Maps of Science.” Scientometrics 68, 3: 475–499.

Davidson, George S., B. Hendrickson, David K. Johnson, C. E. Meyers, and Brian N. Wylie. 1998. “Knowledge Mining with VxInsight: Discovery Through Interaction.” Journal of Intelligent Information Systems 11, 3: 259–285.

Davidson, George S., Brian N. Wylie, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2001. “Cluster Stability and the Use of Noise in Interpretation of Clustering.” Proceedings of IEEE Information Visualization 2001, 23–30. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE.

Informatik 5. 2008. DocMINER Home Page. RWTH Aachen University. http://www-i5.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/i5new/projects/DocMINER/DocMINER.html (accessed June 2, 2008).

CERN—European Organization for Nuclear Research (Hoschek). 1999. Colt Project Home Page. http://www-itg.lbl.gov/~hoschek/colt (accessed October 30, 2007).

Search Technology, Inc. 2008. Vantage Point Home Page. http://www.thevantagepoint.com (accessed June 2, 2008).

Gahegan, M., M. Takatsucka, M. Wheeler, and F. Hardisty. 2002. “GeoVISTA Studio: An Integrated Suite of Visualization and Computation Methods for Exploration and Knowledge Construction in Geography.” Computer, Environment and Urban Systems 26 4: 267–292.

Image Credits

DrL, courtesy of Sandia National Laboratory, see also Davidson et al. 2001.

VxInsight, courtesy of Sandia National Laboratory, see also Davidson et al. 1998.

DocMINER (Document Maps for Information Elicitation and Retrieval) is hosted at Informatik 5, Aachen University.

Vantage Point Tool, see also Porter, Alan L., and Scott W. Cunningham. 2005. Tech Mining. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

GeoVISTA Studio created by Mark Gahegan, Masa Takatsuma, Frank Hardisty, Alan MacEachren, and many other researchers at the GeoVISTA Center, Penn State University.

Books

References

Wilson, E. O. 1998. Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. New York: Knopf.

Porter, Michael E. 1998. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: The Free Press.

Wouters, Paul. 1999. “The Citation Culture.” PhD diss., University of Amsterdam. http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/wouters/wouters.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Gieryn, Thomas F. 1999. Cultural Boundaries of Science: Credibility on the Line. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Watts, D. J. 1999. Small Worlds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Boutellier, Roman, Oliver Gassman, and Maximilian von Zedtwitz. 2000. Managing Global Innovation: Uncovering the Secrets of Future Competitiveness. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Cronin, Blaise, and Helen Barsky Atkins, eds. 2000. The Web of Knowledge: A Festschrift in Honor of Eugene Garfield. ASIS Monograph Series. Medford, NJ: Information Today.

Bloom, H. 2000. Global Brain: The Evolution of Mass Mind from the Big Bang to the 21st Century. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Headrick, Daniel R. 2000. When Information Came of Age: Technologies of Knowledge in the Age of Reason and Revolution, 1700–1850. New York: Oxford University Press.

Geisler, Eliezer. 2000. The Metrics of Science and Technology. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Timeline: 2000–2001

Algorithms

References

Brandes, Ulrik. 2001. “A Faster Algorithm for Betweenness Centrality.” Journal of Mathematical Sociology 25, 2: 163–177.

Kleinberg, J. M. 2002. “Bursty and Hierarchical Structure in Streams.” Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 91–101. New York: ACM Press.

Griffiths, Thomas L., and Mark Steyvers. 2002. “A Probabilistic Approach to Semantic Representation.” Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 381–386. George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, August 7–10.

Griffiths, Thomas L., and Mark Steyvers. 2004. “Finding Scientific Topics.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5228–5235.

Richardson, Matthew, and Pedro Domingos. 2001. “The Intelligent Surfer: Probabilistic Combination of Link and Content Information in PageRank.” Proceedings of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 14. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Girvan, M., and M. Newman. 2002. “Community Structure in Social and Biological Networks.” PNAS 99: 7821–7826.

Visualizations

References

Chen, Chaomei, and R. J. Paul. 2001. “Visualizing a Knowledge Domain’s Intellectual Structure.” IEEE Computer 34, 3: 65–71.

Newman, Mark E. J. 2004. “Who Is the Best Connected Scientist? A Study of Scientific Coauthorship Networks.” In Complex Networks, Lecture Notes in Physics 650, edited by E. Ben-Naim, H. Frauenfelder, and Z. Toroczkai, 337–370. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Newman, Mark E. J. 2000. “Who Is the Best Connected Scientist? A Study of Scientific Coauthorship Networks.” SFI Working Paper 00-12-64. Santa Fe Institute. http://www.santafe.edu/media/workingpapers/00-12-064.pdf (accessed February 10, 2010).

Old, L. John. 1999. “Spatial Representation and Analysis of Co-Citation Data on the ‘Canonical 75’: Re-viewing White and McCain.” PhD Research Project L710, Research in Library and Information Science, School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University.

Wattenberg, Martin. 2002. “Idea Line.” Whitney Artport: The Whitney Museum Portal to Net Art http://artport.whitney.org/commissions/idealine.shtml (accessed March 30, 2010).

Andrews, Keith, Vedran Sabol, Wilfried Lackner, Christian Gütl, and Josef Moser. 2001. “Search Result Visualisation with xFIND.” Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on User Interfaces to Data Intensive Systems (UIDIS’01), edited by Epaminondas Kapetanios and Hans Hinterberger, 50–58. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Zhu, Donghua, and Porter, Alan L. 2002. “Automated Extraction and Visualization of Information for Technological Intelligence and Forecasting.” Technological Forecasting & Social Change 69, 5: 495–506.

Paley, W. Bradford. 2002. “Illuminated Diagrams: Using Light and Print to Comparative Advantage.” http://www.textarc.org/appearances/InfoVis02/InfoVis02_IlluminatedDiagrams.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits—Maps

Kartoo Visual Interface to Search Results courtesy of Hamza Habib.

See also Chen and Paul 2001, © 2001, IEEE.

See Newman 2004, with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media.

See Old 1999.

See Wattenberg 2002.

See Andrews et al. 2001, © 2001, IEEE.

See Zhu and Porter 2002, reprinted with permission from Elsevier.

Courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

Image Credits—Portraits

Chen portrait courtesy of Chaomei Chen.

Old portrait courtesy of John Old.

Wattenberg portrait courtesy of Jonathan Feinberg.

Zhu portrait courtesy of Donghua Zhu.

Porter portrait courtesy of Alan Porter.

Paley portrait courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

Software Credits

Kartoo. 2007. “Kartoo Visual Meta Search Engine.” Previously available at http://www.kartoo.com (accessed October 30, 2007).

Tools

References

Baur, Michael, Marc Benkert, Ulrik Brandes, Sabine Cornelsen, Marco Gaertler, Boris Köpf, Jürgen Lerner, and Dorothea Wagner. 2001. “Visone.” Graph Drawing 2001, edited by G. Goos, J. Hartmanis, and J. van Leeuwen, 463–464. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Kapler, Thomas and William Wright. 2005. “GeoTime Information Visualization.” Information Visualization 4, 2: 136–146.

Image Credits

UCINet courtesy of Steve P. Borgatti.

Visone Tool courtesy of Ulrik Brandes.

E-Mail Analysis courtesy of ADVIZOR Solutions, Inc.

Infoscope courtesy of Macrofocus GmbH.

Visual Thesaurus, © 1998–2007 Thinkmap, Inc. All rights reserved.

They Rule courtesy of Josh On.

TouchGraph courtesy of TouchGraph LLC, http://touchgraph.com.

GeoTime is a registered trademark of Oculus Info, Inc., see Kapler and Wright 2004.

Issue Ticker, Touchscreen version (2005) courtesy of Govcom.org Foundation, Amsterdam.

Software Credits

Borgatti, S. P., M. G. Everett, and L. C. Freeman. 2002. “Ucinet for Windows: Software for Social Network Analysis.” Harvard, MA: Analytic Technologies. http://www.analytictech.com/ucinet (accessed February 10, 2010).

Brandes, Ulrik, and Dorothea Wagner. 2010. “Visone: Analysis and Visualization of Social Networks.” http://visone.info (accessed March 30, 2010).

© Advizor Solutions, Inc. Used by permission.

Macrofocus GmbH. 2008. “Macrofocus.” http://www.macrofocus.com (accessed June 2, 2008).

Rogers, Richard. 2002. “The Issue Crawler: Towards a Live Social Science on the Web.” EASST Review 21, 3/4: 8-11.

Thinkmap, Inc. 2008. “Thinkmap Visual Thesaurus.” http://www.visualthesaurus.com (accessed June 2, 2008).

On, Josh. 2008. “They Rule.” http://www.theyrule.net (accessed October 30, 2007).

TouchGraph, LLC. 2007. “TouchGraph Google Browser.” http://www.touchgraph.com/TGGoogleBrowser.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

Oculus Info, Inc. 2006. “Oculus Excel Visualizer.” http://www.oculusinfo.com/papers/ExcelVizWhitepaper-final.pdf (accessed January 1, 2008).

Books

References

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2001. A Sociological Theory of Communications: The Self-Organization of the Knowledge-Based Society. Boca Raton, FL: Universal Publishers.

Tuomi, Ilkka. 2002. Networks of Innovation: Change and Meaning in the Age of the Internet. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jaffe, Adam B., and Manuel Trajtenberg. 2002. Patents, Citations and Innovations: A Window on the Knowledge Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Börner, Katy, and Chaomei Chen. 2002. “Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries: Motivation, Utilization and Socio-Technical Challenges.” In Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, edited by Katy Börner and Chaomei Chen, vol. 2539: 1–9. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Chen, Chaomei. 2002. Mapping Scientific Frontiers. London: Springer-Verlag.

Barabási, Albert-László. 2002. Linked: How Everything Is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books Group.

Timeline: 2002–2004

Algorithms

References

Xing, Wenpu, and Ali Ghorbani. 2004. “Weighted PageRank Algorithm.” In Second Annual Conference on Communication Networks and Services Research (CNSR’04), 305–314. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Visualizations

References

Skupin, André. 2002. “A Cartographic Approach to Visualizing Conference Abstracts.” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 22, 1: 50–58.

Visualization and Information Retrieval Research Group. 2004. “VisualLink: Associative Information Visualizer.” Drexel University. http://project.cis.drexel.edu/infovis/ (accessed March 30, 2010).

Visualization and Information Retrieval Research Group. 2010. “Citation Mapping and Visualization.” Drexel University. http://project.cis.drexel.edu/authorlink/ (accessed March 30, 2010).

Lin, X., H. D. White, and J. Buzydlowski. 2003. “Real-Time Author Co-Citation Mapping for Online Searching.” Information Processing and Management 39, 5: 689–706.

White, H. D., X. Lin, J. Buzydlowski, and Chaomei Chen. 2004. “User Controlled Mapping of Significant Literatures.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5297–5302.

White, H. D. 2001. “Author-Centered Bibliometrics through CAMEOs: Characterizations Automatically Made and Edited Online.” Scientometrics 51, 3: 607-637.

Lenoir, Timothy. 2004. “Emerging from the Digital Dark Ages: Challenges and Opportunities for the History of Science and Technology in the Information Age.” In Technikforschung: zwischen Reflexion und Dokumentation, edited by Roland Ris, 11–26. Bern: Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences.

Lenoir, Timothy. 2007. “Making Studies in New Media Critical.” In MediaArtHistories, edited by Oliver Grau, 355–380. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Stanford University Biochemistry Department Genealogy. “hpsCollaboratory.” Stanford University. http://hpslab.stanford.edu/projects/StanfordBiochemistry/genealogy.html (accessed October 30, 2007).

Batty, M. 2003. “The Geography of Scientific Citation.” Environment and Planning A 35, 5: 761–765.

Batty, Michael. 2005. Cities and Complexity: Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, Agent-Based Models, and Fractals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Boyack, Kevin W., and Katy Börner. 2003. “Indicator-Assisted Evaluation and Funding of Research: Visualizing the Influence of Grants on the Number and Citation Counts of Research Papers.” Special issue (Visualizing Scientific Paradigms), Journal of the American Society of Information Science and Technology 54, 5: 447–461.

Kutz, Daniel. 2004. “Examining the Evolution and Distribution of Patent Classifications.” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV’04), edited by Ebad Banissi, 983–988. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Chen, Chaomei, and J. Kuljis. 2003. “The Rising Landscape: A Visual Exploration of Superstring Revolutions in Physics.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54, 5: 435–446.

Chen, Chaomei. 2006. “CiteSpace II: Detecting and Visualizing Emerging Trends and Transient Patterns in Scientific Literature.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 57, 3: 359–377.

Chen, Chaomei. 2004. “Searching for Intellectual Turning Points: Progressive Knowledge Domain Visualization.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5303–5310.

Moody, James. 2004. “The Structure of a Social Science Collaboration Network.” American Sociological Review 69: 213–238.

Moody, James, and Ryan Light. 2006. “A View from Above: The Evolving Sociological Landscape.” The American Sociologist 37: 67–86.

Mane, Ketan, and Katy Börner. 2004. “Mapping Topics and Topic Bursts in PNAS.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5287–5290.

Image Credits—Maps

See Skupin 2002, © 2002, IEEE.

AuthorLink and ConceptLink courtesy of Xia Lin.

Scholarly Genealogies courtesy of Timothy Lenoir and Casey Alt.

Geography of Science, reprinted by permission of Pion Limited, London.

Linking Papers and Funding, see Boyack and Börner 2003.

Evolution and Distribution of Patent Classifications courtesy of Daniel O. Kutz.

Mapping Scientific Frontiers courtesy of Chaomei Chen.

See Moody and Light 2006, with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media.

See Mane and Börner 2004, © 2004, National Academy of Sciences, USA.

Image Credits—Portraits

Skupin portrait courtesy of Marinta Skupin.

Lin portrait courtesy of Xia Lin.

White portrait courtesy of Howard D. White.

Buzydlowski portrait courtesy of Jan W. Buzydlowski.

Lenoir portrait courtesy of Timothy Lenoir.

Batty portrait courtesy of Michael Batty.

Boyack portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Kutz portrait courtesy of Daniel O. Kutz.

Chen portrait courtesy of Chaomei Chen.

Moody portrait courtesy of James Moody.

Mane portrait courtesy of Ketan Mane.

Tools

References

Information Visualization Laboratory, School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University. 2005. “InfoVis Cyberinfrastructure.” http://iv.slis.indiana.edu (accessed October 30, 2007).

Bender-deMoll, Skye, and Daniel A. McFarland. 2003. “SoNIA: Social Network Image Animator.” http://www.stanford.edu/group/sonia; http://sourceforge.net/projects/sonia (accessed October 30, 2007).

Auber, David. 2003. “Tulip: A Huge Graph Visualisation Framework.” In Graph Drawing Softwares, Mathematics and Visualization, edited by Petra Mutzel and Michael Jünger, 105–126. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Chen, Chaomei. 2006. “CiteSpace II: Detecting and Visualizing Emerging Trends and Transient Patterns in Scientific Literature.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 57, 3: 359–377.

Garfield, Eugene. 2004. “Historiographic Mapping of Knowledge Domains Literature.” Journal of Information Science 30, 2: 119–145. http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/jis30%282%29p119-145y2004.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

HistCite Software LLC. 2008. “HistCite: Bibliometric Analysis and Visualization Software.” http://www.histcite.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Fekete, Jean-Daniel. 2004. “The Infovis Toolkit.” Proceedings of the 10th IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 167–174. IEEE Press.

Image Credits

StoCNET courtesy of Mark Huisman.

JUNG courtesy of Joshua O’Madadhain

Information Visualization Cyberinfrastructure courtesy of Katy Börner, Indiana University.

SoNIA (Social Network Image Animator) courtesy of ATA SPA.

Refviz Overview of Literature Search Results courtesy of Thomson Reuters.

Tulip Software courtesy of David Auber, LaBRI Université Bordeaux 1.

Dynet Dynamic Network Software Package courtesy of ATA SPA.

Citespace Trend Analysis courtesy of Chaomei Chen.

HistCite Historiography courtesy of Eugene Garfield.

The Infovis Toolkit courtesy of Jean Daniel Fekete and Catherine Plaisant.

Software Credits

Huisman, M., and M.A.J. van Duijn. 2003. “StOCNET: Software for the Statistical Analysis of Social Networks.” Connections 25, 1: 7–26.

O’Madadhain, Joshua, Danyel Fisher, and Scott White. 2008. “JUNG: Java Universal Network/Graph Framework.” University of California, Irvine. http://jung.sourceforge.net (accessed May 29, 2008).

Baumgartner, Jason, Katy Börner, N. J. Deckard, and N. Sheth. 2003. “An XML Toolkit for an Information Visualization Software Repository.” IEEE

Information Visualization Conference Poster Compendium, 72–73.

Thomson Reuters. 2008. “RefViz: Explore Research Literature . . . Visually!” http://www.refviz.com (accessed June 2, 2008).

Advanced Technology Assessment SpA. “DyNet LS Tool.” http://www.atalab.com/software/dynet (accessed October 30, 2007).

Chen, Chaomei. 2008. “CiteSpace: Visualizing Patterns and Trends in Scientific Literature.” http://cluster.cis.drexel.edu/~cchen/citespace (accessed June 10, 2008).

Books

References

Monge, Peter R., and Noshir S. Contractor. 2003. Theories of Communication Networks. New York: Oxford University Press.

Watts, Duncan. 2003. Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Shiffrin, Richard M., and Katy Börner. 2004.“Mapping Knowledge Domains.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5183–5185.

Moed, H. F., W. Glänzel, and U. Schmoch. 2004. Handbook of Quantitative Science and Technology Research: The Use of Publication and Patent Statistics in Studies of S&T Systems. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers/Springer-Verlag.

Freeman, Linton C. 2004. The Development of Social Network Analysis: A Study in the Sociology of Science. Vancouver, Canada: Empirical Press.

Scotchmer, Suzanne. 2004. Innovation and Incentives. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Timeline: 2004-2005

Algorithms

References

Kobourov, Stephen G., and Kevin Wampler. 2005. “Non-Euclidean Spring Embedders.” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 11, 6: 757–767. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department.

Phan, D., L. Xiao, R. Yeh, P. Hanrahan, and T. Winograd. 2005. “Flow Map Layout.” Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 29: 219–224. http://graphics.stanford.edu/papers/flow_map_layout/flow_map_layout.pdf (accessed March 16, 2010).

Councill, Isaac G., C. Lee Giles, Hui Han, and Eren Manavoglu. 2005. “Automatic Acknowledgment Indexing: Expanding the Semantics of Contribution in the CiteSeer Digital Library.” Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Knowledge Capture, 19–26. New York: ACM Press.

Cronin, Blaise, Gail McKenzie, Lourdes Rubio, and Sherrill Weaver-Wozniak. 1993 “Accounting for Influence: Acknowledgments in Contemporary Sociology.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 44, 7: 406–412.

Visualizations

References

Skupin, André. 2002. “A Cartographic Approach to Visualizing Conference Abstracts.” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 22, 1: 50–58.

Skupin, André. 2004. “The World of Geography: Visualizing a Knowledge Domain with Cartographic Means.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5274–5278.

Nesbitt, Keith V. 2004. “Getting to More Abstract Places Using the Metro Map Metaphor.” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation, 488–493. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Ke, Weimao, Katy Börner, and Lalitha Viswanath. 2004. “Analysis and Visualization of the IV 2004 Contest Dataset.” IEEE Information Visualization Conference 2004 Poster Compendium, 49–50. http://conferences.computer.org/InfoVis/files/compendium2004.pdf and http://iv.slis.indiana.edu/ref/iv04contest/Ke-Borner-Viswanath.gif (animated version) (accessed October 30, 2007).

Bender-DeMoll, Skye, Nocola Nottoli, and J. A. Rodriguez. 2005. “Critical Paths and Trajectories in Networks.” Lucca, Italy: Advanced Technology Assessment. http://www.atalab.com/technology (accessed May 29, 2008).

Moody, James, Daniel A. McFarland, and Skye Bender-DeMoll. 2005. “Dynamic Network Visualization: Methods for Meaning with Longitudinal Network Movies.” American Journal of Sociology 110: 1206-1241.

Bender-DeMoll, Skye, and Daniel A. McFarland. 2006. “The Art and Science of Dynamic Network Visualization.” Journal of Social Structure 7, 2. http://www.cmu.edu/joss/content/articles/volume7/deMollMcFarland (accessed October 30, 2007).

Coombs, C., J. Dawes, and A. Tversky. 1970. Mathematical Psychology: An Elementary Introduction, 73–75. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Tobler, Waldo. 1995. “Migration: Ravenstein, Thornthwaite, and Beyond.” Urban Geography 16, 4: 327–343.

Smith, Marc. 2002. “Tools for Navigating Large Social Cyberspace.” Communications of the ACM 45, 4: 51–55.

Morris, Steven A., and Kevin W. Boyack. 2005. “Visualizing 60 Years of Anthrax Research.” Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, edited by P. Ingwerson and B. Larsen, 45–55. Stockholm: Karolinska University Press.

Boyack, Kevin W., Richard Klavans, and Katy Börner. 2005. “Mapping the Backbone of Science.” Scientometrics 64, 3: 351–374.

Image Credits—Maps

GIS Map of Geography, © 2005, André Skupin.

Subway Domain Map: Nesbitt, Keith V. 2004. PhD diss. map. Newcastle, Australia. Courtesy of IEEE and Keith V. Nesbitt, Charles Sturt University, Australia; 2004, IEEE.

Critical Paths and Trajectories of Individuals courtesy of ATA SPA.

See Moody et al. 2005.

Journal Flow Map of Data by Coombs et al., courtesy of Waldo Tobler, CSISS.org

Treemap View of 2004 Usenet Returnees courtesy of Marc A. Smith, Microsoft Research.

Crossmap of Anthrax Research courtesy of Steven Morris.

Backbone of Science courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack, Richard Klavans, and Katy Börner.

Image Credits—Portraits

Skupin portrait courtesy of Marinta Skupin.

Conway portrait courtesy of Dan Conway.

Ke portrait courtesy of Weimao Ke.

Moody portrait courtesy of James Moody.

McFarland portrait courtesy of Daniel A. McFarland.

Bender-DeMoll portrait courtesy of Skye Bender-DeMoll.

Tobler portrait courtesy of Waldo Tobler.

Smith portrait courtesy of Marc A. Smith.

Fisher portrait courtesy of Danyel Fisher.

Morris portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Boyack portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Klavans portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Tools

References

Heer, Jeffrey, Stuart K. Card, and James A. Landay. 2005. “Prefuse: A Toolkit for Interactive Information Visualization.” Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2005, edited by Gerrit C. van der Veer and Carolyn Gale, 421–430. New York: ACM Press.

Adar, Eytan. 2006. “GUESS: A Language and Interface for Graph Exploration.” Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, edited by Rebecca Grinter, Thomas Rodden, Paul Aoki, Ed Cutrell, Robin Jeffries, and Gary Olso, 791–800. New York: ACM Press.

Torvik, Vetle I., Marc Weeber, Don R. Swanson, and Nell R. Smalheiser. 2005. “A Probabilistic Similarity Metric for Medline Records: A Model for Author Name Disambiguation.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 56, 2: 140–158.

Douglas, Shawn M., Gaetano T. Montelione, and Mark Gerstein. 2005. “PubNet: A Flexible System for Visualizing Literature-Derived Networks.” Genome Biology 6, 9: R80.

Ichise, Ryutaro, Hideaki Takeda, and Kosuke Ueyama. 2005. “Community Mining Tool using Bibliography Data.” Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Information Visualization, 953–958. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

OmniViz, Inc. 2008. “Unpublished visualization.” http://www.biowisdom.com/tag/omniviz (accessed February 10, 2010).

Tools—Graphics

NetVis Dynamic Visualization of Social Networks courtesy of Jonathon N. Cummings.

R Statistical Computing Language, © R Foundation, from http://www.r-project.org.

Prefuse Visualization API as captured by Russell J. Duhon.

GUESS Graph Exploration System, Eytan Adar, GUESS.

Author-Name Disambiguation courtesy of Vetle I. Torvik.

See Douglas et al. 2005, courtesy of Shawn M. Douglas.

CiNii Researchers Link Viewer courtesy of Ryutaro Ichise.

BioWisdom courtesy of OmniViz, Inc.

Software Credits

Cummings, Jonathon N. 2007. “NetVis Module: Dynamic Visualization of Social Networks.” http://www.netvis.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

The R Foundation. 2003. “R Project for Statistical Computing.” http://www.r-project.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

Adar, Eytan. 2007. “GUESS: The Graph Exploration System.” http://graphexploration.cond.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

Douglas, Shawn M., Gaetano T. Montelione, and Mark Gerstein. 2005. “PubNet: Publication Network Graph Utility.” http://pubnet.papers.gersteinlab.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

CiNii. 2004. “Researchers Link Viewer.” http://ri-www.nii.ac.jp/ComMining1/index.cgi (accessed January 1, 2008).

Books

References

Carrington, P. J., J. Scott, and S. Wasserman, eds. 2005. Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cronin, Blaise. 2005. The Hand of Science: Academic Writing and Its Rewards. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.

Godin, Benoît. 2005. Measurement and Statistics on Science and Technology: 1920 to the Present. Routledge Studies in the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine. New York: Routledge.

Timeline: 2006-I

Visualizations

References

Boyack, Kevin W., Katy Börner, and Richard Klavans. 2007. “Mapping the Structure and Evolution of Chemistry Research.” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, edited by Daniel Torres-Salinas and Henk F. Moed, 112–123. Madrid: CSIC.

Garfield, Eugene, Irving H. Sher, and Richard J. Torpie. 1964. “The Use of Citation Data in Writing the History of Science.” Report for Air Force Office of Scientific Research under contract AF49 (638)-1256. Philadelphia, PA: Institute for Scientific Information. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/useofcitdatawritinghistofsci.pdf (accessed September 30, 2009).

HistCite Software LLC. 2008. “HistCite: Bibliometric Analysis and Visualization Software.” http://www.histcite.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Viégas, Fernanda, Martin Wattenberg, and D. Kushal. 2004. “Studying Cooperation and Conflict Between Authors with History Flow Visualizations.” Proceedings of SIGCHI 6, 1: 575–582. Vienna, Austria, April 24–29. http://alumni.media.mit.edu/~fviegas/papers/history_flow.pdf (accessed June 2, 2008).

Paley, W. Bradford. 2002. “TextArc: Revealing Word Associations, Distribution and Frequency.” TextArc. http://textarc.org/TextArcOverview.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Börner, Katy, Elisha F. Hardy, Bruce W. Herr II, Todd Holloway, and W. Bradford Paley. 2007. “Taxonomy Visualization in Support of the Semi-Automatic Validation and Optimization of Organizational Schemas.” Journal of Informetrics 1, 3: 214–225.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2007. “Is There a Convergent Structure to Science?” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, edited by Daniel Torres-Salinas and Henk F. Moed, 437–448. Madrid: CSIC.

Günther, Ingo. 2006. “WorldProcessor.” http://www.WorldProcessor.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

Günther, Ingo. 2005. WorldProcessor: Chiayi Art Festival on the Tropic of Cancer. Taibao City, Taiwan.

Institute for the Future for the Horizon Scanning Centre of the UK Government’s Office of Science and Innovation. 2006. “Delta Scan: The Future of Science and Technology, 2005–2055.” Stanford Humanities Lab/Metamedia. http://humanitieslab.stanford.edu/2/Home (accessed March 30, 2010).

Image Credits—Maps

2002 Structure Map: Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2005. “The Structure of Science.” Albuquerque, NM, and Berwyn, PA. Courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc., http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

HistCite Visualization of DNA Development by Eugene Garfield (HistCite), Elisha Hardy, Katy Börner (graphic design), Ludmila Pollock (images), and Jan Witkowski (text). Philadelphia, PA. Courtesy of Eugene Garfield, Thomson Reuters ISI, Indiana University, and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

History Flow courtesy of Fernanda Viégas and Martin Wattenberg, IBM, Inc.

TextArc Visualization of “The History of Science” courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

Taxonomy Visualization courtesy of Katy Börner.

Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2006. “Map of Scientific Paradigms.” Albuquerque, NM, and Berwyn, PA. Courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack, Sandia National Laboratories and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Günther, Ingo. 2006. “WorldProcessor: Zones of Invention—Patterns of Patents.” New York, NY. Courtesy of Ingo Günther.

Pang, Alex Soojung-Kim, David Pescovitz, Marina Gorbis, and Jean Hagan. 2006. “Science & Technology Outlook: 2005–2055.” Palo Alto, CA. Courtesy of Institute for the Future.

Image Credits—Portraits

Boyack portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Klavans portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Garfield portrait courtesy of Eugene Garfield and Thomson Reuters.

Witkowski portrait courtesy of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Pollock portrait courtesy of Ludmilla Pollock.

Hardy portrait courtesy of Elisha F. Hardy.

Börner portrait courtesy of Katy Börner.

Viégas portrait courtesy of Fernanda Viégas.

Feinberg portrait courtesy of Jonathan Feinberg.

Boyack portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Klavans portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Günther portrait courtesy of Ingo Günther.

Pang portrait © 2007, Institute for the Future.

Pescowitz portrait © 2007, Institute for the Future.

Software Credits

Paley, W. Bradford. “TextArc.” http://textarc.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

Tools

References

Bergström, Peter, and E. James Whitehead Jr. “CircleView: Scalable Visualization and Navigation of Citation Networks.” http://www.cs.ucsc.edu/~ejw/papers/bergstrom_ivica2006_final.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Compendium Institute. 2008. Compendium Institute Home Page. http://compendium.open.ac.uk/institute (accessed March 30, 2010).

Conklin, Jeffrey. 2005. Dialogue Mapping: Building Shared Understanding of Wicked Problems. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Azoulay, Pierre, Andrew Stellman, and Joshua Graff Zivin. 2006. “PublicationHarvester: An Open-Source Software Tool for Science Policy Research.” NBER Working Paper No. 12039. National Bureau of Economic Research, CUNY, and Stanford, CA.

Tools—Graphics

Smart Network Analyzer courtesy of Valdis Krebs.

CircleView Document Visualization courtesy of Peter Bergotrom/VC Santa Cruz.

Compendium Dialog Mapping courtesy of Jeff Conklin.

PublicationHarvester courtesy of Stellman & Greene Consulting. http://www.stellman-greene.com/PublicationHarvester.

Software Credits

Krebs, Valdis. 2008. “InFlow—Software for Social Network Analysis & Organizational Network Analysis.” Orgnet.com. http://www.orgnet.com/inflow3.html (accessed June 2, 2008).

Books

References

Leydesdorff, Loet. 2006. The Knowledge-Based Economy: Modeled, Measured, Simulated. Boca Raton, FL: Universal Publishers.

Braun, Tibor, ed. 2006. Evaluations of Individual Scientists and Research Institutions: A Selection of Papers Reprinted from the Journal Scientometrics. Budapest, Hungary: Akadémiai Kiadó.

Timeline: 2006-II

Visualizations

References

Paley, W. Bradford. 2002. “Illuminated Diagrams: Using Light and Print to Comparative Advantage.” http://www.textarc.org/appearances/InfoVis02/InfoVis02_IlluminatedDiagrams.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Boyack, Kevin W., Richard Klavans, W. Bradford Paley, and Katy Börner. 2007. “Mapping, Illuminating, and Interacting with Science.” Paper presented at SIGGRAPH 2007: The 34th International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in San Diego, CA, August 5–9.

Börner, Katy, Fileve Palmer, Julie M. Davis, Elisha F. Hardy, Stephen M. Uzzo, and Bryan J. Hook. 2009. “Teaching Children the Structure of Science.” Proceedings of SPIE: Conference on Visualization and Data Analysis, 7243, 1: 1-14. Bellingham, WA: SPIE.

Günther, Ingo. 2006. WorldProcessor Project Home Page. http://www.WorldProcessor.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

Günther, Ingo. 2005. WorldProcessor: Chiayi Art Festival on the Tropic of Cancer. Taibao City, Taiwan.

Simms, Andrew, Dan Moran, and Peter Chowla. 2006. The U.K. Interdependence Report: How the World Sustains the Nation’s Lifestyles and the Price It Pays. London: New Economics Foundation. http://www.neweconomics.org/gen/uploads/f2abwpumbr1wp055y2l10s5514042006174517.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

SCImago Research Group. 2010. “Atlas of Science Project.” Universities of Granada, Extremadura and Carlos III (Madrid). http://www.atlasofscience.net (accessed March 16, 2010).

Moya-Anegón, Félix, Benjamín Vargas-Quesada, Víctor Herrero-Solana, Zaida Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Elena Corera-Alvarez, and Francisco Muñoz-Fernández. 2004. “A New Technique for Building Maps of Large Scientific Domains Based on the Cocitation of Classes and Categories.” Scientometrics 61, 1: 129–145.

SCImago Research Group. 2006. “Atlas of Science Quick Tour.” Universities of Granada, Extremadura and Carlos III (Madrid). http://www.atlasofscience.net/pdf/atlas-of-science-quick-guide-v3.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín, and Félix de Moya-Anegón. 2007. Visualizing the Structure of Science. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Image Credits—Maps

Geographic Map: Where Science Gets Done, the Illuminated Diagram Map used in Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, with input from Kevin W. Boyack, Richard Klavans, John Burgoon, and W. Bradford Paley.

Topic Map: How Scientific Paradigms Relate, the Illuminated Diagram Map used in Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, based on “Map of Scientific Paradigms Research” and Node layout by Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. http://www.mapofscience.com with graphics and typography by W. Bradford Paley, Information Esthetics, http://didi.com/brad, conceptualized and commissioned by Katy Börner.

Hands-On Science Maps for Kids, featured in Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, World Map featuring original artwork by Fileve Palmer, Indiana University.

Hands-On Science Maps for Kids, Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, Science Map by Fileve Palmer (original artwork and design) and Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University, incorporating the structural elements of the “Map of Scientific Paradigms” by Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

WorldProcessor Globe of Patents, © Ingo Günther, WorldProcessor.com, 1988–2007.

UK’s Global Ecological Footprint, Ecological Footprint Trade Flow Map Visualization. Visualization by Doantam Phan, Stanford University, data by Dan Moran, Global Footprint Network, published in The UK Interdependence Report by New Economics Foundation.

Atlas of Science courtesy of Félix de Moya Anegón, SCImago Research Group.

Image Credits—Portraits

Boyack portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Klavans portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Burgoon portrait courtesy of Katy Börner.

Kennard portrait courtesy of Katy Börner.

Paley portrait courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

Palmer portrait courtesy of Fileve Palmer.

Davis portrait courtesy of Julie M. Davis.

Börner portrait courtesy of Katy Börner.

Hardy portrait courtesy of Elisha F. Hardy.

Günther portrait courtesy of Ingo Günther.

Moya-Anegón portrait courtesy of Félix de Moya-Anegón.

Tools

References

Herr II, Bruce W., Weixia (Bonnie) Huang, Shashikant Penumarthy, and Katy Börner. 2007. “Designing Highly Flexible and Usable Cyberinfrastructures for Convergence.” Progress in Convergence—Technologies for Human Wellbeing, edited by William S. Bainbridge and Mihail C. Roco, 1093: 161–179. Boston: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

Mons, Albert. 2007. WikiProfessional Home Page. https://www.wikiprofessional.org/portal (accessed October 30, 2007).

Mons, Barend. 2006. “Beyond Text Mining.” Knowledge in Service to Health: Leveraging Knowledge for Modern Science Management. Office of Extramural Research, National Institutes of Health. US Department of Health and Human Services. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/KM/OERRM/OER_KM_events (accessed October 30, 2007).

Image Credits

NWB Team. 2006. “Network Workbench Tool.” Indiana University, Northeastern University, and University of Michigan, http://nwb.slis.indiana.edu (accessed March 15, 2010).

BibExcel Bibliographic Data Analyzer courtesy of Olle Persson.

Knowledge Spaces for Collective Annotation courtesy of Knewco, Inc.

Software Credits

Persson, Olle. 2010. “BIBEXCEL.” http://www8.umu.se/inforsk/Bibexcel (accessed February 10, 2010).

Knewco, Inc. 2008. “Knewco: Knowledge Redesigned.” http://knewco.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Timeline: 2006–2007

Visualizations

References

Carvalho, Rui, and Michael Batty. 2006. “The Geography of Scientific Productivity: Scaling in US Computer Science.” Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment P10012. http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/physics/pdf/0603/0603242v3.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Holloway, Todd, Miran Božičević, and Katy Börner. 2007. “Analyzing and Visualizing the Semantic Coverage of Wikipedia and Its Authors.” Complexity 12, 3: 30–40.

Herr II, Bruce W., Russell Jackson Duhon, Katy Börner, Elisha F. Hardy, and Shashikant Penumarthy. 2008. “113 Years of Physical Review: Using Flow Maps to Show Temporal and Topical Citation Patterns.” Proceedings of the 12th Information Visualization Conference (IV’08), 421–426. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Conference Publishing Services.

Chen, Chaomei, Jian Zhang, Weizhong Zhu, and Michael S. Vogeley. 2007. “Delineating the Citation Impact of Scientific Discoveries.” IEEE/ACM Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, 19–28. Vancouver, Canada, June 17–22.

Herr II, Bruce W., Todd Holloway, Katy Börner, Elisha F. Hardy, and Kevin Boyack. 2007. “Science Related Wikipedian Activity.” Information Visualization Laboratory, School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University, Bloomington. http://www.scimaps.org/maps/map/science_related_wiki_49/ (accessed March 30, 2010).

Boyack, Kevin W. 2007. “Using Detailed Maps of Science to Identify Potential Collaborations.” Scientometrics 79, 1, 27–44.

SciTech Strategies, Inc. 2008. “Maps of Science.” http://mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Zeller, Daniel. 2007. “Hypothetical Model of the Evolution of Science.” http://scimaps.org/dev/map_detail.php?map_id=163 (accessed May 29, 2008).

Gerstein, Mark, and Shawn M. Douglas. 2007. “RNAi Development.” PLoS Computational Biology 3, 4: 0774–0775.

Image Credits—Maps

See Carvalho and Batty 2006.

See Holloway et al. 2007. Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

See Herr II et al. 2008, © 2008 IEEE.

Chen, Chaomei, Jian Zhang, Lisa Kershner, Michael S. Vogeley, J. Richard Gott III, and Mario Juric. 2007. “Mapping the Universe: Space. Time. Discovery!” Philadelphia, PA, and Princeton, NJ. Courtesy of Drexel University and Princeton University.

Herr II, Bruce W. (data mining and visualization), Todd Holloway (data mining), Elisha F. Hardy (graphic design), Kevin W. Boyack (graph layout), Katy Börner (concept). 2007. “Science Related Wikipedian Activity.” Bloomington, IN, and Albuquerque, NM. Courtesy of Indiana University.

2003 ISI/Scopus/UCSD Map © 2007, The Regents of the University of California, all rights reserved.

Hypothetical Model of the Evolution and Structure of Science, 2007, courtesy of Daniel Zeller, Pierogi Gallery, Brooklyn, and G-Module, Paris.

RNAi Development and Nobel Prize courtesy of Shawn M. Douglas.

Image Credits—Portraits

Carvalho portrait courtesy of Rui Carvalho.

Batty portrait courtesy of Michael Batty.

Holloway portrait courtesy of Todd Holloway.

Herr II portrait courtesy of Bruce W. Herr II.

Duhon portrait courtesy of Russell J. Duhon.

Hardy portrait courtesy of Elisha F. Hardy.

Penumarthy portrait courtesy of Shashikant Penumarthy.

Börner portrait courtesy of Katy Börner.

Chen portrait courtesy of Chaomei Chen.

Vogeley portrait courtesy of Micheal S. Vogeley.

Boyack portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Klavans portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Zeller portrait courtesy Pierogi Gallery, Brooklyn, and G-Module, Paris.

Gerstein portrait courtesy of Shawn M. Douglas.

Douglas portrait courtesy of Shawn M. Douglas.

Tools

References

Lin, Xia, Yen Bui, and Dongming Zhang. 2007. “Visualization of Knowledge Structures.” Proceedings of Information Visualization 2007, edited by Ebad Banissi et al., 476–481. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Smith, Marc A. 2004. “Netscan: A Social Accounting Search Engine.” Microsoft Corporation: Community Technologies Groups. Previously available at http://netscan.research.microsoft.com.

Harzing, Anne-Wil. 2008. Harzing.com Home Page. http://www.harzing.com (accessed June 2, 2008).

SparkIP. 2008. Spark IP Home Page. Previously available at http://sparkip.com (accessed January 1, 2008).

Cokol, Murat, Raul Rodriquez-Esteban. 2008. “Visualizing Evolution and Impact of Biomedical Fields.” Journal of Biomedical Informatics 41, 6: 1050-1052.

Tools—Graphics

Visual Concept Explorer courtesy of Xia Lin.

Netscan Usenet Visualization courtesy of Marc A. Smith and Danyel Fisher, Microsoft Research.

Electronic Scientific Portfolio Assistant courtesy of Discovery Logic, Inc.

Treparel Patent Visualization courtesy of Anton Heijs, Treparel.

Publish or Perish Academic Citation Analyzer courtesy of Harzing.com and Tarma Software Research Pty Ltd.

SparkCluster Map courtesy of SparkIP.

SciTrends courtesy of www.scitrends.net (Murat Cokol and Raul Rodriguez-Esteban).

Software Credits

Lin, Xia. 2010. “Visual Concept Explorer.” http://cluster.cis.drexel.edu/vce (accessed March 15, 2010).

Heijs, Anton, and Treparel Information Solutions, B.V. 2008. “Treparel.” http://www.treparel.com (accessed June 2, 2008). Used by permission.

Books

References

Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín, and Félix de Moya Anegón. 2007. Visualizing the Structure of Science. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Contributors

We thank Mike Pollard, Julie D. Wugalter, and Laurel Haak for 2007 Electronic Scientific Portfolio Assistant; Project Key Indicators image from DiscoveryLogic.

Timeline: 2007

Visualizations

References

Hook, Peter A. 2007. “Network Derived Domain Maps of the United States Supreme Court: 50 Years of Co-Voting Data and a Case Study on Abortion.” Presentation at the International Workshop and Conference on Network Science 2007. Queens, NY, May 22. http://ella.slis.indiana.edu/~pahook/product/2007-05-22_NetSci07.ppt (accessed October 30, 2007).

Boyack, Kevin W., Katy Börner, and Richard Klavans. 2007. “Mapping the Structure and Evolution of Chemistry Research.” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, edited by Daniel Torres-Salinas and Henk F. Moed, 112–123. Madrid: CSIC.

Hidalgo, César A., B. Klinger, Albert-L. Barabási, and R. Hausmann. 2007. “The Product Space Conditions the Development of Nations.” Science 317, 5837: 482–487.

Igami, Masatsura, and Ayaka Saka. 2007. “Capturing the Evolving Nature of Science: The Development of New Scientific Indicators and the Mapping of Science.” OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2007/1. Paris: OECD Publishing. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/11/40/38134903.pdf (accessed October 30, 2007).

Rosvall, M., and C. T. Bergstrom. 2008. “Maps of Random Walks on Complex Networks Reveal Community Structure.” PNAS 105, 4: 1118–1123.

Leydesdorff, Loet, and Ismael Rafols. 2009. “A Global Map of Science Based on the ISI Subject Categories.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60, 2: 348–362.

Herr II, Bruce W., Gully Burns, and David Newman. 2006. “Society for Neuroscience 2006.” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science. http://scimaps.org/maps/neurovis (accessed November 27, 2007).

Image Credits—Maps

“Citation Network of Supreme Court Abortion and Birth Control Cases with KeyCite Status Flags” courtesy of Peter A. Hook, Indiana University.

“Mapping the Evolution of Chemistry Research” courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack, Katy Börner, and Richard Klavans.

“The Product Space” courtesy of César A. Hidalgo.

“Mapping Multidisciplinary Science,” public domain image by Masatsura Igami and Ayaka Saka, National Institute of Science and Techology Policy, Japan.

See Rosvall and Bergstrom 2008, © 2008, National Academy of Sciences, USA.

“A Global Map of Science based on the ISI Subject Categories,” courtesy of Loet Leydesdorff.

“Interactive Google Map of 2006 Society for Neuroscience Abstracts,” courtesy of Bruce W. Herr II, Gully Burns (USC), and David Newman (UCI). See also http://www.nihmaps.org.

Herr II, Bruce W., Edmund M. Talley, Gully A.P.C. Burns, David Newman, and Gavin LaRowe. 2009. “The NIH Visual Browser: An Interactive Visualization of Biomedical Research.” Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Visualization, 505-509. Barcelona, Spain: IEEE Computer Society.

Image Credits—Portraits

Hook portrait courtesy of Peter A. Hook.

Boyack portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Klavans portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

Börner portrait courtesy of Katy Börner.

Igami portrait courtesy of Masatsura Igami.

Saka portrait courtesy of Ayaka Saka.

Rosvall portrait courtesy of Martin Rosvall.

Bergstrom portrait courtesy of Carl Bergstrom.

Leydesdorff portrait courtesy of Loet Leydesdorff.

Herr II portrait courtesy of Bruce W. Herr II.

Discussion

Contributors

This timeline benefited from material compiled by Peter A. Hook, Kevin W. Boyack, and Loet Leydesdorff. Bryan J. Hook and Mark A. Price kindly retrieved books and papers.

Acknowledgements: This exhibit is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS-0238261, CHE-0524661, IIS-0534909 and IIS-0715303, the James S. McDonnell Foundation; Thomson Reuters; the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, University Information Technology Services, and the School of Library and Information Science, all three at Indiana University. Some of the data used to generate the science maps is from the Web of Science by Thomson Reuters and Scopus by Elsevier. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.