Atlas of Science: References

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71

Part 4: Science Maps in Action

References

Moreno, Jacob L. 1933. “Emotions Mapped by New Geography.” New York Times, April 3. [Quotation]

Data Credits

Science Citation Index (SCI), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), and Arts & Humanities Index (A&HI) by Thomson Reuters, 2001–2004; Scopus Database, 2001–2005.

All world and science map overlays for each of the 30 maps: 2002 Base Map, see Boyack et al. 2009: Science location of map significance by Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept).

World Map by Russell J. Duhon, overlay of geographical influence and significance by Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept).

Image Credits

Extracted from: Skupin, André. 2005. In Terms of Geography. New Orleans, LA. In Katy Börner & Deborah MacPherson (eds.), First Iteration (2005): The Power of Maps, Places & Spaces: Mapping Science. http://scimaps.org (accessed May 4, 2009).

72

Places & Spaces: Mapping Science

Motivation & Goal

Image Credits

Börner portrait courtesy of Katy Börner.

McPherson portrait courtesy of Katy Börner.

Boyack portrait courtesy of Katy Börner.

10 Iterations in 10 Years

No references or credits.

Elements of the Exhibit

References

Boyack, Kevin W., Katy Börner, and Richard Klavans. 2009. “Mapping the Structure and Evolution of Chemistry Research.” Scientometrics 79, 1: 45–60.

Boyack, Kevin W., Richard Klavans, W. Bradford Paley, and Katy Börner. 2007. “Mapping, Illuminating, and Interacting with Science.” Paper presented at SIGGRAPH 2007: The 34th International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in San Diego, CA, August 5–9.

Börner, Katy, Fileve Palmer, Julie M. Davis, Elisha F. Hardy, Stephen M. Uzzo, and Bryan J. Hook. 2009. “Teaching Children the Structure of Science.” Proceedings of SPIE: Conference on Visualization and Data Analysis, 7243, 1: 1-14. Bellingham, WA: SPIE.

Data Credits

Indiana University School of Library and Information Science Information Visualization Laboratory. 2010. “Places & Spaces: Mapping Science.” http://scimaps.org (accessed March 12, 2010).

Image Credits

Intro panel: Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept).

Illuminated Diagrams: see Boyack 2007.

Hands-On Maps for Kids: see Börner 2009 and http://scimaps.org/exhibit_info (accessed March 23, 2010).

WorldProcessor Globes: © Ingo Günther, WorldProcessor.com, 1988–2007.

DVD: cover art by Ingo Günther and Stephen Oh, back cover by Elisha F. Hardy, concept by Katy Börner.

Web site: design and programming by Elisha F. Hardy and Russell J. Duhon, concept by Katy Börner, see http://scimaps.org.

74

Venues

References

Boyack, Kevin W., Katy Börner, and Richard Klavans. 2009. “Mapping the Structure and Evolution of Chemistry Research.” Scientometrics 79, 1: 45–60.

Data Credits

Indiana University School of Library and Information Science Information Visualization Laboratory. 2010. “Places & Spaces: Mapping Science.” http://scimaps.org (accessed March 12, 2010).

Image Credits

All photos of Places & Spaces venues taken by Katy Börner.

Geographic Map of Exhibit Venues: Russell J. Duhon (data preparation), Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Science and Geography Maps: Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University; adapted from Boyack and Klavans 2002 Base Map, see Boyack et al. 2009.

Contributors

Bryan J. Hook compiled the data used in the geographic and science map of exhibit venues.

76

1st Iteration of Exhibit (2005): The Power of Maps

Image Credits

Overview of the first iteration: Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Cosmographia World Map

References

Ptolemaeus, Claudius. 1478. Cosmographia. Rome: Arnoldus Buckinck.

Skelton, R. A. 1963. “Bibliographical Note.Reproduction of Claudius Ptolemaus, Cosmographia, Ulm, 1482. Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum.

Thomson, J. O. 1948. History of Ancient Geography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Image Credits

Mare Indicvm, from the Ulm edition of Cosmographia. Courtesy of the Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

Ptolemy (woodcut) from the collection of the James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Ptolemy portrait: Courtesy of the James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Contributors

Deborah MacPherson and Bonnie DeVarco coauthored the original biography and description of this map.

Nova Anglia, Novvm Belgivm et Virginia

References

Hermon Dunlap Smith Center for the History of Cartography. 2010. “The John Smith Map of Virginia: Derivations and Derivatives.” The Newberry Library. http://www.newberry.org/smith/slidesets/ss24.html (accessed July 15, 2007).

Smith, John. 1612. “Virginia … Discovered and Described by Captayn John Smith.” In A Map of Virginia with a Description of the Countrey, the Commodities, People, Government and Religion by Joseph Barnes. Oxford: Joseph Barnes.

Image Credits

Johannes Janssonius portrait is original artwork by Karl Marti, Indiana University.

Smith’s map of Virginia is a public domain image; assistance from Kristin Lehner at George Mason University.

Nova Anglia Novvm Belgivm et Virginia courtesy of the Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

Contributors

Deborah MacPherson and Bonnie DeVarco coauthored the original biography and description of this map.

A New Map of the Whole World with the Trade Winds According to the Latest and Most Exact Observations

References

Moll, Herman. 1736. “Atlas Minor. Or a New and Curious Set of Sixty-Two Maps …” London: Thos. Bowles and John Bowles.

Moll, Herman. 1736. “A New Map of the Whole World with the Trade Winds According to Ye Latest and Most Exact Observations.” David Rumsey Map Collection, Cartography Associates. http://www.davidrumsey.com/maps4691.html (accessed July 15, 2007).

Image Credits

Moll portrait is original artwork by Karl Marti, Indiana University.

Moll Map detail courtesy of the Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

A New Map of the Whole World with the Trade Winds courtesy of the David Rumsey Map Collection, Cartography Associates, San Francisco, CA.

Contributors

Deborah MacPherson and Bonnie DeVarco coauthored the original biography and description of this map.

Napoleon’s March to Moscow

References

Corbett, John. 2007. “Charles Joseph Minard: Mapping Napoleon’s March, 1861.” Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science. http://www.csiss.org/classics/content/58 (accessed April 2, 2007).

Robinson, Arthur H. 1967. “The Thematic Maps of Charles Joseph Minard.” In Imago Mundi: A Review of Early Cartography 21, 95–108.

Tufte, Edward R. 1983. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tufte, Virginia, and Dawn Finley. 2002. “Minard’s Sources.” Edward Tufte.com: New ET Writings, Artworks & News. http://www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/minard (accessed April 2, 2007).

Image Credits

Minard signature is courtesy of the Library of Congress.

Map, see Tufte 2001.

Contributors

Deborah MacPherson, Bonnie DeVarco, and John Corbett coauthored the original biography and description of this map.

1996 Map of Science: A Network Representation of the 43 Fourth Level Clusters Based on Data from the 1996 Science Citation Index

References

Garfield, Eugene. 1998. “AAAS Talk—Mapping the World of Science.” Presentation at the 150th Anniversary Meeting of the AAAS. Philadelphia, PA, February 14. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/mapsciworld.html. (accessed February 5, 2010.)

Lee, R.C.T., J. R. Slagle, and H. Blum. 1977. “A Triangulation Method for the Sequential Mapping of Points from N-Space to Two-Space.” IEEE Transactions on Computers 26, 3: 288–292.

Marshakova, Irina V. 1973. “A System of Document Connections Based on References.” Scientific and Technical Information Serial of VINITI 6: 3–8.

Small, Henry. 1973. “Co-citation in Scientific Literature: A New Measure of the Relationship between Publications.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 24: 265–269.

Small, Henry. 1997. “Update on Science Mapping: Creating Large Document Spaces.” Scientometrics 38, 2: 275–293.

Small, Henry. 1999. “Visualizing Science by Citation Mapping.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 50 9: 799–813.

Small, Henry. 2000. “Charting Pathways Through Science: Exploring Garfield’s Vision of a Unified Index to Science.” In Web of Knowledge: A Festschrift in Honor of Eugene Garfield, edited by Helen Barsky Atkins and Blaise Cronin, 449–473. Medford, NJ: Information Today.

Small, Henry, and Eugene Garfield. 1985. “The Geography of Science: Disciplinary and Natural Mapping.” Journal of Information Science, 11, 4: 147–159.

Small, Henry, and Phineas Upham. 2009. “Citation Structure of an Emerging Research Area on the Verge of Application.” Scientometrics 79, 2: 365-375.

Thomson Reuters. 2008. “Organic Thin-Film Transistors. A Research Front Map Interview with Professor John A. Rogers.” http://esi-topics.com/otft/interviews/rfm3_JohnARogers.html (accessed August 15, 2009).

Data Credits

Map by Henry G. Small, with data sourced from Thomson Reuters.

Science Citation Index (SCI) by Thomson Reuters, 36, 720 highly cited, multidisciplinary papers 1981–1995.

Image Credits

Small portrait © Balázs Schlemmer.

1996 Map of Science courtesy of Henry G. Small, Thomson Reuters.

Highly Cited Multi-Disciplinary Documents from Thomson Reuters, reproduced by permission

Exploring the 1996 Map of Science courtesy of Henry G. Small, Thomson Reuters ISI. See also Thomson Reuters 2008.

Courtesy of Henry G. Small, Thomson Reuters, see also Thomson Reuters 2008. “Highly Cited Multi-Disciplinary Documents” from Thomson Reuters, reproduced by permission.

Software Credits

Courtesy of Henry G. Small, Thomson Reuters.

Contributors

Henry G. Small provided feedback on the text, images, and references.

PhD Thesis Map

References

Garland, K. 1994. Mr. Beck’s Underground Map, 20. Middlesex, UK: Capitol Transport Publishing.

Hong, Seok-Hee, Damian Merrick Hugo, and A. D. do Nascimento. 2004. “The Metro Map Layout Problem.” Proceedings of the 2004 Australasian Symposium on Information Visualisation 35, 91–100. Christchurch, New Zealand.

Nesbitt, Keith V. 2003. “Multi-sensory Display of Abstract Data.” PhD diss., University of Sydney.

Nesbitt, Keith V. 2004. “Getting to More Abstract Places Using the Metro Map Metaphor.” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation, 488–493. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Nesbitt, Keith V. 2004. Ph.D. Thesis Map. Newcastle, Australia. Courtesy of IEEE and Keith V. Nesbitt, Charles Sturt University, Australia; © 2004, IEEE.

Nesbitt, Keith V. 2006. “Designing Multi-Sensory Displays of Abstract Data—with Stock Market Trading Examples.” Presentation at Indiana University. Bloomington, IN, October 9. http://vw.indiana.edu/talks-fall06/nesbitt.ppt (accessed October 5, 2009).

Stott, Jonathan M., and Peter Rodgers. 2004. “Metro Map Layout Using Multicriteria Optimization.” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV’’04), 355–362. London, July 14–16. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Image Credits

Nesbitt portrait courtesy of Dan Conway.

Ph.D. Thesis Map, see Nesbitt 2003.

Subway and train maps, see Nesbitt 2004.

Software Credits

Microsoft PowerPoint

Contributors

Keith V. Nesbitt coauthored the biography as well as the description of this map.

Timeline of 60 Years of Anthrax Research Literature

References

Crane, Diana. 1972. Invisible Colleges: Diffusion of Knowledge in Scientific Communities. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Kessler, Michael M. 1963. “Bibliographic Coupling Between Scientific Papers.” American Documentation 14, 1: 10–25.

Koffka, K. 1935. The Principles of Gestalt Psychology, 720. London: Lund Humphries

Kuhn, T. S. 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 2nd ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Morris, Steven A. 2005. “Unified Mathematical Treatment of Complex Cascaded Bipartite Networks: The Case of Collections of Journal Papers.” PhD diss., Oklahoma State University. http://eprints.rclis.org/4661 (accessed February 10, 2010).

Morris, Steven A., Benyam Asnake, and Gary G. Yen. 2003. “Dendrogram Seriation Using Simulated Annealing.” Information Visualization 2, 95-104.

Morris, Steven A., Camille DeYong, Zheng Wu, Sinan Salman, and Dagmawi Yemenu. 2002. “DIVA: A Visualization System for Exploring Document Databases for Technology Forecasting.” Computers and Industrial Engineering 43, 841–862.

Morris, Steven A., and Kevin W. Boyack. 2005. “Visualizing 60 Years of Anthrax Research.” Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, edited by P. Ingwerson and B. Larsen, 45–55. Stockholm: Karolinska University Press.

Morris, Steven A., and Gary G. Yen. 2004. “Crossmaps: Visualization of Overlapping Relationships in Collections of Journal Papers.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5291–5296.

Morris, Steven A., Gary G. Yen, Zheng Wu, and Benyam Asnake. 2003. “Time Line Visualization of Research Fronts.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54, 5: 413–422.

Image Credits

Morris portrait courtesy of Steven A. Morris.

See Morris and Boyack 2005; courtesy of Steven A. Morris.

Technique adapted from Steven A. Morris, see Morris 2005.

Papers plotted as circles adapted from Morris and Boyack 2005; courtesy of Steven A. Morris.

Authors, References, Index Terms graphic courtesy of Steven A. Morris, see also Morris and Yen 2004.

Software Credits

The software is the latest revision of DIVA, which was described in Morris et al. 2002 and Morris and Boyack 2005.

Data Credits

Science Citation Index by Thomson Reuters.

Treemap View of 2004 Usenet Returnees

References

Bruls, M., K. Huising, and J. J. van Wijk. 2000. “Squarified Treemaps.” Proceedings of Joint Eurographics and IEEE TCVG Symposium on Visualization (TCVG 2000), 33–42. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Fiore, A., and Marc A. Smith. 2001. “Tree Map Visualizations of Newsgroups.” Technical Report MSR-TR-2001-94, October 4. Microsoft Corporation Research Group. http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?id=69889 (accessed August 15, 2009).

Fisher, D., M. Smith, and H. Welser. 2006. “You Are Who You Talk To: Detecting Roles in Usenet Newsgroups.” Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 59b. Koloai, HI, January 4-7.

Shneiderman, B. 1992. “Tree Visualization with Tree-Maps: 2-D Space-Filling Approach.” In ACM Transactions on Graphics 11, 92–99. New York: ACM Press.

Shneiderman, B., and M. Wattenberg. 2001. “Ordered Treemap Layouts.” Proceedings IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 2001, 73–79. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Smith, Marc A. 2004. “Netscan: A Social Accounting Search Engine.” Microsoft Corporation: Community Technologies Groups. Previously available at http://netscan.research.microsoft.com.

Smith, Marc. 2002. “Tools for Navigating Large Social Cyberspace.” Communications of the ACM 45, 4: 51–55.

Smith, Marc. 2008. “Mapping Usenet: Visualization.” Previously available at http://research.microsoft.com/~masmith/all_map.jpg.

Turner, T. C., Marc A.Smith, Danyel Fisher, and Howard T. Welser. 2005. “Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 10, 4, article 7.

Welser, Howard T., Eric Gleave, Danyel Fisher, and Marc A. Smith. 2007. “Visualizing the Signatures of Social Roles in Online Discussion Groups.” Journal of Social Structure 8, 2.

Image Credits

Smith portrait courtesy of Marc A. Smith.

Fisher portrait courtesy of Danyel Fisher.

See Smith, Marc A. 2004.

Treemap set up, visualization, and Netscan graphics courtesy of Marc A. Smith, Microsoft Research.

Data Credits

See Smith, Marc A. 2004.

Software Credits

See Smith, Marc A. 2004.

Contributors

Marc A. Smith and Danyel Fisher coauthored the biographies as well as the description of this map.

In Terms of Geography

References

Fabrikant, S., and André Skupin. 2005. “Cognitively Plausible Information Visualization.” In Exploring GeoVisualization, edited by J. Dykes, A. M. MacEachren, and M. J. Kraak, sect. E: 35. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Kohonen, Teuvo. 1995. Self-Organizing Maps. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

National Academies Board on Mathematical Sciences and Applications. 2005. “Toward Improved Visualizations of Uncertain Information.” http://sites.nationalacademies.org/DEPS/BMSA. (accessed February 10, 2010).

Skupin, André. 2009. André Skupin Home Page. http://geography.sdsu.edu/People/Pages/skupin (accessed August 15, 2009).

Skupin, André. 2004. “The World of Geography: Visualizing a Knowledge Domain with Cartographic Means.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5274–5278.

Skupin, André, and Sarah Fabrikant. 2007. “Spatialization.” In The Handbook of Geographical Information Science, edited by J. Wilson and S. Fotheringham, 61–79. Boston: Blackwell.

Skupin, A., and R. Hagelman. 2005. “Visualizing Demographic Trajectories in Attribute Space.” GeoInformatica 9, 2: 159–179.

Image Credits

Skupin portrait courtesy of Marinta Skupin.

In Terms of Geography © 2005, André Skupin; data processing and coding by Shujing Shu.

Graphics of the geographical reference system, SOM processing, and close-up of the map details courtesy of André Skupin, all rights reserved.

Graphics of map nodes and applied labels courtesy of André Skupin, all rights reserved.

Photo, see Skupin 2004, © 2004, IEEE.

Data Credits

Association of American Geographers. http://www.aag.org (accessed October 30, 2007).

Software Credits

AbstractMap and other proprietary software by André Skupin. Final rendering executed in ESRI ArcGIS.

Kohonen Neural Networks Research Centre, Helsinki University of Technology. 2010. “A Self-Organizing Map Program.” http://www.cis.hut.fi/research/som_pak (accessed March 15, 2010).

Contributors

André Skupin coauthored the description of this map.

The Structure of Science

References

Boyack, Kevin, and Katy Börner. 2001. “Mapping Aging Research Handout.” Prepared for the Mapping Aging Research Presentation at the NIA Planning Workshop: Assessments of Behavioral and Social Science Research Vitality. Washington DC, November 9. http://ella.slis.indiana.edu/~katy/research (accessed June 2, 2008).

Boyack, Kevin W., Katy Börner, and Richard Klavans. 2007. “Mapping the Structure and Evolution of Chemistry Research.” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, edited by Daniel Torres-Salinas and Henk F. Moed, 112–123. Madrid: CSIC.

Davidson, George S., B. Hendrickson, David K. Johnson, C. E. Meyers, and Brian N. Wylie. 1998. “Knowledge Mining with VxInsight: Discovery Through Interaction.” Journal of Intelligent Information Systems 11, 3: 259–285.

Davidson, George S., Brian N. Wylie, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2001. “Cluster Stability and the Use of Noise in Interpretation of Clustering.” Proceedings

of IEEE Information Visualization 2001, 23–30. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE.

Kessler, Michael M. 1963. “Bibliographic Coupling Between Scientific Papers.” American Documentation 14, 1: 10–25.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2006. “Quantitative Evaluation of Large Maps of Science.” i>Scientometrics 68, 3: 475–499.

Image Credits

Portraits of Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans © Balázs Schlemmer.

Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2005. “The Structure of Science.” Albuquerque, NM, and Berwyn, PA. Courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc., http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Technique graphics, disciplinary model, community model, and data overlays of the 2002 Base Map courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc., http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Algorithm visualization, VxOrd, VxInsight, and zoom views courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc., http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Data Credits

Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index by Thomson Reuters.

Software Credits

VxOrd, see Davidson et al. 2001.

VxInsight, see Davidson 1998.

110

2nd Iteration of Exhibit (2006): The Power of Reference Systems

Image Credits

Overview of the second iteration: Elisha F. Hardy (design), and Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

U.S. Frequency Allocations Chart

References

National Telecommunications and Information Administration. 2003. “U.S. Frequency Allocation Chart.” http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/Allochrt.html (accessed July 15, 2007).

Image Credits

Courtesy of National Telecommunications and Information Administration with redesigned elements by Shravan Rajagopal, Indiana University.

National Telecommunications and Information Administration. 2003. “U.S. Frequency Allocation Chart.” Courtesy of the Office of Spectrum Management, Washington, DC.

Data Credits

National Telecommunications and Information Administration

Contributors

Deborah MacPherson and Bonnie DeVarco coauthored the original biography and description of this map.

The Visual Elements Periodic Table

References

Dürsteler, Juan C. 2007. “The Periodic Table of the Elements.” Inf@Vis! The Digital Magazine of Infovis.net. http://www.infovis.net/printMag.php?num=188&lang=2 (accessed July 15, 2007).

Mendeleyev, Dmitry Ivanovich, and William B. Jensen. 2005. Mendeleev on the Periodic Law: Selected Writings, 1869–1905. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.

Scerri, E. R. 2006. The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Image Credits

Robertson portrait courtesy of Murray Robertson.

Emsley portrait courtesy of John Emsley.

Robertson, Murray, and John Emsley. 2005. Visual Elements Periodic Table. London, UK. Courtesy of the Royal Society of Chemistry Images, © Murray Robertson, 1999–2006.

Contributors

Deborah MacPherson and Bonnie DeVarco coauthored the original biography and description of this map.

Cartographica Extraordinaire: The Historical Map Transformed

References

Rumsey, David, and Edith M. Punt. 2004. Cartographica Extraordinaire: The Historical Map Transformed. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

Image Credits

Rumsey portrait courtesy of David Rumsey.

Punt portrait courtesy of Edith M. Punt.

Courtesy of ESRI Press, © 2004 David Rumsey, ESRI, DigitalGlobe, Inc., MassGIS. All rights reserved.

Contributors

Deborah MacPherson and Bonnie DeVarco coauthored the original biography and description of this map. David Rumsey provided valuable feedback.

Sky Chart of New York City in April 2006

References

Hirshfield, Alan, and Roger W. Sinnott, eds. 1999. Sky Catalogue 2000.0. Vol. 2, Galaxies, Double and Variable Stars, and Star Clusters: Stars to Visual Magnitude 2000.0. Cambridge, MA: Sky Publishing Corporation/Cambridge University Press.

Robinson, Leif J. 2010. “A Brief History of Sky and Telescope.” http://www.skyandtelescope.com/about/generalinfo/3305301.html (accessed February 12, 2010)

Image Credits

Portrait of Roger W. Sinnott, the iFactory logo, and Sky & Telescope logo image, courtesy of Sky & Telescope magazine.

Sinnott, Roger W. 2006. “The Interactive Factory.” Sky Chart of New York City in April 2006. Cambridge, MA. Courtesy of Sky & Telescope magazine.

Contributors

Deborah MacPherson and Bonnie DeVarco coauthored the original biography and description of this map.

HistCite Visualization of DNA Development

References

Asimov, Isaac. 1963. The Genetic Code. New York: Signet/Penguin.

Garfield, Eugene. 2004. “Historiographic Mapping of Knowledge Domains Literature.” Journal of Information Science 30, 2: 119–145.

Garfield, Eugene, A. I. Pudovkin, and V. S. Istomin. 2003. “Mapping the Output of Topical Searches in the Web of Knowledge and the Case of Watson-Crick.” Information Technology and Libraries 22, 4: 183–187.

Garfield, Eugene, A. I. Pudovkin, and V. S. Istomin. 2003. “Why Do We Need Algorithmic Historiography?” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54, 5: 400–412.

Garfield, Eugene, Irving H. Sher, and Richard J. Torpie. 1964. “The Use of Citation Data in Writing the History of Science.” Report for Air Force Office of Scientific Research under contract AF49 (638)-1256. Philadelphia, PA: Institute for Scientific Information. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/useofcitdatawritinghistofsci.pdf (accessed September 30, 2009).

Watson, J. D., and F.H.C. Crick. 1953. “A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid.” Nature 171: 737–738.

Wilkins, M.H.F., A. R. Stokes, and H. R. Wilson. 1953. “Molecular Structure of Deoxypentose Nucleic Acids.” Nature 171, 738–740.

Image Credits

Garfield portrait courtesy of Eugene Garfield and Thomson Reuters.

Pollock portrait courtesy of Ludmilla Pollock.

Portrait of Jan Witkowski courtesy of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Garfield, Eugene. 2006. HistCite Visualization of DNA Development by Eugene Garfield (HistCite), Elisha Hardy and Katy Börner (graphic design), Ludmila Pollock (images), Jan Witkowski (text). Philadelphia, PA. Courtesy of Eugene Garfield, Thomson Reuters, Indiana University, and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Manually compiled historiography, see Garfield et al. 1964.

Automically generated historiograph and screen shots, Katy Börner, Indiana University, using HistCite Software.

Data Credits

Asimov data, see Asimov 1963.

Garfield, Eugene. 1963. Science Citation Index. Science Citation Index 1961, 1: v–xvi. http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/80.pdf (accessed August 13, 2009).

Garfield, Eugene, and Irving H. Sher. 1963. Genetics Citation Index, 864. Philadelphia: Institute for Scientific Information.

Software Credits

HistCite Software LLC. 2008. “HistCite: Bibliometric Analysis and Visualization Software.” http://www.histcite.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Contributors

Diane Ippoldo prepared the network diagrams for the 1964 paper.

Soren Paris compiled the data from Wilkins et al. (1953) and Watson and Crick (1953) and the citing papers data set; Eugene Garfield coauthored this description. A major part of the HistCite description comes from http://www.histcite.com.

History Flow Visualization of the Wikipedia Entry on “Abortion”

References

Heckel, Paul. 1978. “A Technique for Isolating Differences between Files.” Communications of the ACM 21, 4: 264–268.

IBM Collaborative User Experience Research Group. 2003. “History Flow: Gallery.” http://www.research.ibm.com/visual/projects/history_flow/gallery.htm (accessed June 2, 2008).

IBM Collaborative User Experience Research Group. 2003. “History Flow: Visualizing the Editing History of Wikipedia Pages.” http://www.research.ibm.com/visual/projects/history_flow (accessed March 31, 2007).

Viégas, Fernanda, Martin Wattenberg, and D. Kushal. 2004. “Studying Cooperation and Conflict Between Authors with History Flow Visualizations.” Proceedings of SIGCHI 6, 1: 575–582. Vienna, Austria, April 24–29. http://alumni.media.mit.edu/~fviegas/papers/history_flow.pdf (accessed June 2, 2008).

Image Credits

Wattenberg portrait courtesy of Jonathan Feinberg.

Viégas portrait courtesy of Fernanda Viégas.

All HistFlow maps courtesy of Fernanda Viégas and Martin Wattenberg, IBM, see Viégas et al. 2004.

Data Credits

Wikimedia data downloaded from http://download.wikipedia.org in May 2003.

TextArc Visualization of “The History of Science”

References

Williams, Henry Smith. 1904. A History of Science. New York: HarperCollins.

Image Credits

Paley portrait courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

Paley, W. Bradford. 2006. TextArc Visualization of “A History of Science.” New York, NY. Courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

All TextArc maps courtesy of W. Bradford Paley.

Data Credits

Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll (originally published in 1865), text downloaded from Project Gutenberg, http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/928 (accessed June 10, 2008).

A History of Science by Henry Smith Williams (originally published in 1904), text downloaded from Project Gutenberg online: http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1705 (Volume 1: The Beginnings of Science); http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1706 (Volume 2: The Beginnings of Modern Science); http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1707 (Volume 3: Modern Development of the Physical Sciences); http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1708 (Volume 4: Modern Development of the Chemical and Biological Sciences). (accessed June 10, 2008.)

Software Credits

Paley, W. Bradford. 2002. TextArc Home Page. http://textarc.org (accessed June 10, 2008).

Contributors

Some text was taken from http://textarc.org and
http://textarc.org/TextArcOverview.pdf, with permission by W. Bradford Paley.

Taxonomy Visualization of Patent Data

References

Börner, Katy, Elisha F. Hardy, Bruce W. Herr II, Todd Holloway, and W. Bradford Paley. 2007. “Taxonomy Visualization in Support of the Semi-Automatic Validation and Optimization of Organizational Schemas.” Journal of Informetrics 1, 3: 214–225.

Image Credits

Börner portrait courtesy of Katy Börner.

Holloway portrait courtesy of Todd Holloway.

Map and two sketches, see Börner et al. 2007.

Zoom into Bar Graphs, Zoom into References, and Zoom into Citations by Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Data Credits

United States Patent and Trademark Office, data sets downloadable from ftp://ftp.uspto.gov/pub/patdata.

The number of references a patent shares was downloaded from http://patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html.

Contributors

Josh Bonner and Alaa Elie Abi Haidar programmed initial TV prototypes; Shashikant Penumarthy gave expert advice; Eric Giannella helped with the selection of patent examples.

Map of Scientific Paradigms

References

Davidson, George S., B. Hendrickson, David K. Johnson, C. E. Meyers, and Brian N. Wylie. 1998. “Knowledge Mining with VxInsight: Discovery Through Interaction.” Journal of Intelligent Information Systems 11, 3: 259–285.

Davidson, George S., Brian N. Wylie, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2001. “Cluster Stability and the Use of Noise in Interpretation of Clustering.” Proceedings of IEEE Information Visualization 2001, 23–30. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE.

Dickinson, Boonsri. 2007. “Map: Science’s Family Tree.” Discover, May 31. http://discovermagazine.com/2007/jun/map-science2019s-family-tree (accessed June 10, 2008).

Editorial Staff. 2007. “Scientific Method: Relationships among Scientific Paradigms.” Seed, March 7. http://www.seedmagazine.com/news/2007/03/scientific_method_relationship.php (accessed June 10, 2008).

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2006. “Quantitative Evaluation of Large Maps of Science.” Scientometrics 68, 3: 475–499.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2007. “Is There a Convergent Structure to Science? A Comparison of Maps using the ISI and Scopus Databases.” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, edited by Daniel Torres-Salinas and Henk F. Moed, 437-448. Madrid, Spain, June 25-27.

Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2008. “Measuring Science-Technology Interaction Using Rare Inventor-Author Names.” Journal of Informetrics 2, 3: 173-183.

Marris, Emma. 2006. “Brilliant Display.” Nature 444: 985.

National Science Foundation. 2006. Investing in America’s Future: Strategic Plan, FY 2006–2011, 10. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

Paley, W. Bradford. 2007. “Map of Science in the Journal Nature, SEED and Discover Magazines.” http://wbpaley.com/brad/mapOfScience (accessed August 16, 2009).

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), and Policy and Global Affairs (PGA). 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11463 (accessed June 2, 2008).

Slashdot. 2007. “How Scientific Paradigms Relate,” March 20. http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/03/20/2347203&from=rss (accessed June 10, 2008).

Image Credits

Portraits of Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans © Balázs Schlemmer.

Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2006. “Map of Scientific Paradigms.” Albuquerque, NM, and Berwyn, PA. Courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack, Sandia National Laboratories and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

All VxOrd maps (Country Profiles, Institutional Strengths) courtesy of Richard Klavans and Kevin W. Boyack, SciTech Strategies, Inc., http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Patent yield, see Boyack and Klavans 2008.

Paley, W. Bradford. 2007. Topic Map: How Scientific Paradigms Relate, used by permission.

Data Credits

Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index by Thomson Reuters.

Software Credits

VxOrd, see Davidson et al. 2001.

VxInsight, see Davidson 1998.

WorldProcessor: Zones of Invention—Patterns of Patents

References

Birchall, Ian. 2003. “Michael Kidron (1930–2003).” International Socialism: A Quarterly Journal of Socialist Theory. http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj99/birchall.htm (accessed June 2, 2008).

Günther, Ingo, User Science Institute, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City, Japan, and WorldProcessor Globes, Inc. 1998–2005. “Kodomo Project.” http://kodomo-project.org/worldprocessor (accessed June 2, 2008).

Günther, Ingo. 2005. WorldProcessor. Chiayi Art Festival on the Tropic of Cancer. Ji-Tung Art Printing.

Smith, Dan. 2003. The Penguin State of the World Atlas. 7th ed. New York: Penguin.

Image Credits

Günther portrait courtesy of Ingo Günther.

WorldProcessor: Zones of Invention—Patterns of Patents (New York, NY, 2006) © Ingo Günther, WorldProcessor.com, 1988–2007.

Photos of WorldProcessor globes courtesy of Ingo Günther, see also http://WorldProcessor.org.

Data Credits

World Intellectual Property Organization Database (WIPO).

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Contributors

Ingo Günther coauthored the description of the map and globes; the assistance of John Mahoney, Stephen Oh, Monika D. Zhu, and many others has been invaluable.

144

3rd Iteration of Exhibit (2007): The Power of Forecasts

Image Credits

Overview of the third iteration: Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Tectonic Movements and Earthquake Hazard Predictions

References

UNAVCO Facility. 2010. Jules Map Server Home Page. http://jules.unavco.org (accessed February 5, 2010).

UNAVCO Facility. 1994-2010. “Jules Verne Voyager Jr. Earth: World.” http://jules.unavco.org/VoyagerJr/Earth (accessed February 5, 2010).

Image Credits

Hamburger portrait courtesy of Indiana University.

Meertens portrait courtesy of UNAVCO.

Michael W. Hamburger and Chuck Meertens (data and visualization), Elisha F. Hardy (graphic design). 2007. “Tectonic Movements and Earthquake Hazard Predictions.” Bloomington, IN, and Boulder, CO. portrait of Indiana University and UNAVCO Consortium.

Software Credits

Jules Verne Voyager Map Tool courtesy of UNAVCO.

Contributors

Michael W. Hamburger coauthored this description.

The Oil Age: World Oil Production 1859–2050

References

Campbell, Colin J. 2003. The Essence of Oil & Gas Depletion. Essex, UK: Multi-Science Publishing Company.

Cutler, Cleveland. 2005. “Net Energy from the Extraction of Oil and Gas in the U.S.” Energy 30, 5: 769–782.

Cleveland, Cutler J., Robert Costanza, Charles A. S. Hall, and Robert Kaufman. 1984. “Energy and US Economy: A Biophysical Perspective.” Science 225, 4665: 890–897.

Duncan, Richard C. 2000. “The Peak of World Oil Production and the Road to the Olduvai Gorge.” Pardee Keynote Symposia, Geological Society of America, Summit 2000. Reno, NV, November 13. http://dieoff.org/page224.htm (accessed June 2, 2008).

Hirsch, Robert, Roger Bezdek, and Robert Welding. 2005. Peaking of World Oil Production: Impacts, Mitigation, and Risk Management. United States: SAIC.

Ramage, Janet. 1997. Energy: A Guidebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shah, Sonia. 2004. Crude: The Story of Oil. New York: Seven Stories Press.

Yergin, Daniel. 1992. The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, & Power. New York: Free Press.

Image Credits

Bracken portrait courtesy of Richard Katz, SF Informatics.

Menninger portrait courtesy of Richard Katz, SF Informatics.

Poremba portrait courtesy of Richard Katz, SF Informatics.

Katz portrait courtesy of Richard Katz, SF Informatics.

Rob Bracken (writer), Dave Menninger (graphic artist), Michael Poremba (statistician), Richard Katz (catalyst). 2006. “The Oil Age: World Oil Production 1859–2050.” San Francisco, CA. Courtesy of San Francisco Informatics.

Data Credits

U.S. Energy Information Agency.

BP Statistical Review (June 2005).

Colin Campbell’s Oil Depletion Model, see Campbell 2003.

Software Credits

Open Office spreadsheet

Adobe Illustrator

Contributors

Richard Katz authored the biographies and description and acknowledges Gregson Vaux and Jean Laherrere.

Impact of Air Travel on Global Spread of Infectious Diseases

References

Colizza, V., A. Barrat, M. Barthelemy, A. J. Valleron, and A. Vespignani. 2007. “Modeling the Worldwide Spread of Pandemic Influenza: Baseline Case and Containment Interventions.” PLoS Medicine 4, 1.

Colizza, V., A. Barrat, M. Barthelemy, and A. Vespignani. 2006. “The Modeling of Global Epidemics: Stochastic Dynamics and Predictability.” Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 68, 8: 1893–1921.

Colizza, V., A. Barrat, M. Barthelemy, and A. Vespignani. 2006. “The Role of the Airline Transportation Network in the Prediction and Predictability of Global Epidemics.” PNAS 103: 2015.

Cx-Nets Collaborators. “Complex Networks Collaboratory.” http://cxnets.googlepages.com (accessed July 20, 2007).

IATA. 2007. International Air Transport Association Home Page. http://www.iata.org (accessed July 20, 2007).

Image Credits

Portraits of Vittoria Colizza and Alessandro Vespignani courtesy of Alessandro Vespignani.

Vittoria Colizza (research and data), Alessandro Vespignani (research), Elisha F. Hardy (graphic design). 2007. Impact of Air Travel on Global Spread of Infectious Diseases. Bloomington, IN. Courtesy of Indiana University.

Data Credits

IATA data, see IATA, 2007.

U.S. Census database, http://www.census.gov, and the United Nations Statistics Database, http://unstats.un.org/unsd (accessed March 23, 2010).

Software Credits

ArcGIS software by ESRI (http://www.esri.com) was used for the visualization of simulated results. Simulation results were obtained with a simulation software written in C language developed by the authors, see both Colizza et al. 2006 references and Colizza et al. 2007.

Contributors

A. Barrat and M. Barthelemy (model development, data analysis, study design), A.-J. Valleron (study design), J. J. Ramasco and D. Balcan (data collection and analysis), K. Börner (discussions and comments).

[./logicaland] Participative Global Simulation

References

Brecke, Peter. 1993. “Integrated Global Models that Run on Personal Computers.” Simulation 60, 2: 140–144.

Kile, Frederick, and Arnold Rabehl. 1977. “Evolution of an Integrated Modeling Approach.” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-7, 12: 859–863.

Image Credits

Portraits of Michael Aschauer, Maia Gusberti, Nik Thoenen, and Sepp Deinhofer courtesy of Nik Thoenen, nt@re-p.org.

Michael Aschauer, Maia Gusberti, Nik Thoenen, Sepp Deinhofer (collaborator). 2002. “[./logicaland] Participative Global Simulation.” Vienna, Austria. Courtesy of Michael Aschauer, Maia Gusberti, and Nik Thoenen, in collaboration with Sepp Deinhofer, http://re-p.org.

Data Credits

[./logicaland] http://logicaland.net/download.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

Software Credits

[./logicaland] is licensed under GNU GPL and source code is available at http://logicaland.net/download.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

Contributors

Michael Aschauer, Maia Gusberti, and Nik Thoenen, in collaboration with Sepp Deinhofer; http://re-p.org.

Science & Technology Outlook: 2005–2055

References

Foresight. 2007. “Horizon Scanning Centre.” http://www.foresight.gov.uk/Horizon Scanning Centre (accessed March 23, 2010).

HM Treasury. 2010. “Opportunities and Challenges for the UK: Analysis for the 2007 Comprehensive Spending Review.” http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/spending_review/spend_csr07/spend_csr07_index.cfm (accessed March 11, 2010).

Pang, Alex Soojung-Kim. 2006. “First Press on the Delta Scan.” IIFTF’s Future Now: Emerging Technologies and their Implications for the Future. http://future.iftf.org/2006/12/first_press_on_.html. (accessed March 16, 2010).

Phaal, Robert. 2006. “Public Domain Roadmaps.” University of Cambridge and the Institute for Manufacturing. http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/ctm/trm/documents/published_roadmaps.pdf (accessed March 16, 2010).

Phaal, Robert, Martin Eppler, and Alan Blackwell, organizers. 2007. “Workshop 4: Visualizing Strategy—Exploring Graphical Roadmap Forms.” Visualization Summit, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule/Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland. http://www.ia.arch.ethz.ch/visualization_summit/workshop_04.htm (accessed June 2, 2008).

Stanford Humanities Laboratory. 2006. Delta Scan: The Future of Science and Technology, 2005–2055, Home Page. http://humanitieslab.stanford.edu/2/Home (archived forum accessed August 16, 2009).

Stanford Humanities Laboratory. 2006. “Delta Scan: The Future of Science and Technology, 2005–2055, Project Page.” http://humanitieslab.stanford.edu/2/247. (accessed March 30, 2010).

Image Credits

Portraits of Alex Soojung-Kim Pang and David Pescovitz © 2007, Institute for the Future.

Alex Soojung-Kim Pang, David Pescovitz, Marina Gorbis, and Jean Hagan. 2006. “Science & Technology Outlook: 2005–2055.” Palo Alto, CA. Courtesy of The Institute for the Future.

Photographs of IFTF workshops courtesy of Alex Soojung-Kim Pang.

Image of Delta Scan home page courtesy of Stanford Humanities Laboratory.

Data Credits

The database is hosted by the Stanford University Foresight Research group, housed in the University’s Wallenberg Center.

IFTF database is hosted by the Stanford University Foresight Research group, housed in the University’s Wallenberg Center, see Stanford Humanities Laboratory 2006.

Contributors

This description was coauthored by Alex Soojung-Kim Pang.

113 Years of Physical Review

References

American Physical Society. 2008. “Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme.” http://publish.aps.org/PACS (accessed June 2, 2008).

Börner, Katy, Shashikant Penumarthy, Mark Meiss, and Weimao Ke. 2006. “Mapping the Diffusion of Information among Major U.S. Research Institutions.” Scientometrics 68, 3: 415–426.

Chicago Area Transportation Study. 1959. Final Report: Survey Findings, vol. 1: 46, fig. 23.

Coombs, C., J. Dawes, and A. Tversky. 1970. Mathematical Psychology: An Elementary Introduction, 73–75. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Garfield, Eugene. 1992. “ ‘Of Nobel Class’: Part 1. An Overview of ISI Studies on Highly Cited Authors and Nobel Laureates.” Current Comments 33: 3–13. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v15p116y1992-93.pdf (accessed June 2, 2008).

Garfield, Eugene. 1992. “ ‘Of Nobel Class’: Part 2. Forecasting Nobel Prizes Using Citation Data and the Odds Against It.” Current Comments 35: 3–12. http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v15p127y1992-93.pdf (accessed June 2, 2008).

Kessler, Michael M. 1963. “Bibliographic Coupling Between Scientific Papers.” American Documentation 14, 1: 10–25.

Kohonen, Teuvo. 1995. Self-Organizing Maps. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Martello, Angela. 1990. “Prediction of the 2004 Nobel Prize.” The Scientist 4, 17: 16 and 18: 16–17.

Pendlebury, David. 2008. “Choosing Thomson Citation Laureates: The Process and Results.” Research Services, Thomson Scientific. http://scientific.thomson.com/nobel/essay (accessed June 10, 2008).

Phan, D., L. Xiao, R. Yeh, P. Hanrahan, and T. Winograd. 2005. “Flow Map Layout.” Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 29: 219–224. http://graphics.stanford.edu/papers/flow_map_layout/flow_map_layout.pdf (accessed March 16, 2010).

Redner, S. 2005. “Citation Statistics from 110 Years of Physical Review.” Physics Today 58, 49–54.

Robinson, Arthur H. 1955. “The 1837 Maps of Henry Drury Harness.” The Geographical Journal 121, 4: 440–450.

Tobler, W. 1981. “A Model of Geographical Movement.” Geographical Analysis 13, 1: 1–20.

Tobler, W. 1987. “An Experiment in Migration Mapping by Computer.” The American Cartographer 14, 2: 155–163.

Tobler, W. 2001. “Geographical Movement.” http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~tobler/presentations (accessed June 10, 2008).

Tobler, Waldo. 2004. “Tobler’s Flow Mapper.” Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science, Regents of the University of California, Santa Barbara. http://csiss.ncgia.ucsb.edu/clearinghouse/FlowMapper (accessed February 5, 2010).

Image Credits

Duhon portrait courtesy of Russell J. Duhon.

Penumarthy portrait courtesy of Shashikant Penumarthy.

Hardy portrait courtesy of Elisha F. Hardy.

Bruce W. Herr II and Russell Jackson Duhon (data mining and visualization), Elisha F. Hardy (graphic design), Shashikant Penumarthy (data preparation), Katy Börner (concept). 2007. “113 Years of Physical Review.” Bloomington, IN. Courtesy of Indiana University.

Excerpted from “113 Years of Physical Review,” courtesy of Indiana University. Screenshot courtesy of Russell J. Duhon, rendered by Elisha F. Hardy.

Zoom and page background excerpted from “113 Years of Physical Review,” courtesy of Indiana University.

Image excerpted from “Europe Raw Cotton Imports in 1858, 1864, and 1865” by Charles Joseph Minard, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

Continuous flow maps and discrete flow maps courtesy of Waldo Tobler @ CSISS.org.

Flow Map Layout images, see Phan et al. 2005; used by permission.

Data Credits

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office data sets downloadable from ftp://ftp.uspto.gov/pub/patdata (accessed March 30, 2010).

Physical Review data set was provided by the American Physical Society (APS), http://www.aps.org (accessed June 10, 2008).

Nobel Web AB. 2009. “All Nobel Laureates in Physics.” http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates (accessed August 16, 2009).

Thomson Reuters. 2010. “Web of Knowledge - Science.” http://isiwebofknowledge.com (accessed March 30, 2010).

Thomson Reuters. 2009. “Thomson Scientific Predicts the Nobel Prizes in 2008.” http://scientific.thomson.com/nobel (accessed August 16, 2009).

U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. “United States Census 2000.” http://www.census.gov/main/www/cen2000.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

Software Credits

Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science, Regents of the University of California, Santa Barbara. 2008. “Tobler’s Flow Mapper.” http://csiss.ncgia.ucsb.edu/clearinghouse/FlowMapper (accessed February 5, 2010).

Phan, D., L. Xiao, R. Yeh, P. Hanrahan, and T. Winograd. 2005. “Flow Map Layout.” Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 29: 219–224. http://graphics.stanford.edu/papers/flow_map_layout/flow_map_layout.pdf (accessed March 16, 2010).

Contributors

W. Bradford Paley and Daniel Zeller helped conceptualize. Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) provided inspiration and feedback. Gavin LaRowe was involved in parsing the data. Mark Doyle was our primary contact at American Physical Society. Soma Sanyal retrieved ISI Prize Nobel data. Bruce and Russell coauthored the description. Doantam Phan rendered the two flow maps.

Mapping the Universe: Space, Time, and Discovery!

References

Anthonisse, J. M. 1971. “The Rush in a Directed Graph.” Technical Report BN9/71. Amsterdam: Stichting Mahtematisch Centrum.

Brandes, Ulrik. 2001. “A Faster Algorithm for Betweenness Centrality.” Journal of Mathematical Sociology 25, 2: 163–177.

Chen, Chaomei. 1999. “Visualising Semantic Spaces and Author Co-Citation Networks in Digital Libraries.” Information Processing and Management 35, 2: 401–420.

Chen, Chaomei. 2004. “Searching for Intellectual Turning Points: Progressive Knowledge Domain Visualization.” PNAS 101, Suppl. 1: 5303–5310.

Chen, Chaomei. 2005. “CiteSpace: Quick Guide.” http://cluster.cis.drexel.edu/~cchen/citespace/doc/guide.ppt (accessed June 2, 2008).

Chen, Chaomei. 2006. “CiteSpace II: Detecting and Visualizing Emerging Trends and Transient Patterns in Scientific Literature.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 57, 3: 359–377.

Chen, Chaomei, F. Ibekwe-SanJuan, E. SanJuan, and C. Weaver. 2006. “Visual Analysis of Conflicting Opinions.” IEEE Symposium on Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST 2006), 59–66. Baltimore, MD, October 31–November 2.

Chen, Chaomei, and S. Morris. 2003. “Visualizing Evolving Networks: Minimum Spanning Trees versus Pathfinder Networks.” Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 67–74. Seattle, WA: IEEE.

Chen, Chaomei, and R. J. Paul. 2001. “Visualizing a Knowledge Domain’s Intellectual Structure.” IEEE Computer 34, 3: 65–71.

Chen, Chaomei, Jian Zhang, Weizhong Zhu, and Michael S. Vogeley. 2007. “Delineating the Citation Impact of Scientific Discoveries.” IEEE/ACM Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, 19–28. Vancouver, Canada, June 17–22.

Freeman, L. C. 1977. “A Set of Measures of Centrality Based on Betweenness.” Sociometry 40, 1: 35-41.

Girvan, M., and M. Newman. 2002. “Community Structure in Social and Biological Networks.” PNAS 99: 7821–7826.

Gott III, J. Richard, Mario Juric, David Schlegel, Fiona Hoyle, Michael S. Vogeley, Max Tegmark, Neta Bahcall, and Jon Brinkmann. 2005. “A Map of the Universe.” The Astrophysical Journal 624: 463–484.

Kleinberg, J. M. 2002. “Bursty and Hierarchical Structure in Streams.” Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 91–101. New York: ACM Press.

NASA. 2004. “Hubble Digs Deeply, Toward Big Bang.” http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/starsgalaxies/hubble_UDF.html (accessed June 2, 2008).

Schvaneveldt, R. W., ed. 1990. Pathfinder Associative Networks: Studies in Knowledge Organization. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Sloan Digital Sky Survey. 2008. “Mapping the Universe.” http://www.sdss.org (accessed June 2, 2008).

Small, Henry G., and Belver C. Griffith. 1974. “The Structure of Scientific Literatures I: Identifying and Graphing Specialties.” Science Studies 4, 1: 17–40.

Image Credits

Chen portrait courtesy of Chaomei Chen.

Vogeley portrait courtesy of Michael S. Vogeley.

Chaomei Chen, Jian Zhang, Lisa Kershner, Michael S. Vogeley, J. Richard Gott III, and Mario Juric. 2007. “Mapping the Universe: Space, Time, Discovery!” Philadelphia, PA, and Princeton, NJ. Courtesy of Drexel University and Princeton University.

All diagrams and CiteSpace screenshots courtesy of Chaomei Chen. See also Chen 2006.

Data Credits

Sloan Digital Sky Survey. 2003. “SDSS Data Release 1.” http://www.sdss.org/dr1 (accessed June 10, 2008).

Thomson Reuters. 2008. “Web of Science.” http://scientific.thomsonreuters.com/products/wos (accessed June 10, 2008).

Software Credits

Chen, Chaomei. 2008. “CiteSpace: Visualizing Patterns and Trends in Scientific Literature.” http://cluster.cis.drexel.edu/~cchen/citespace (accessed June 10, 2008).

Contributors

This description was coauthored by Chaomei Chen.

Science Related Wikipedian Activity

References

Davidson, George S., Brian N. Wylie, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2001. “Cluster Stability and the Use of Noise in Interpretation of Clustering.” Proceedings of IEEE Information Visualization 2001, 23–30. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE.

Giles, Jim. 2007. “Power Struggle. Second Sight.” New Scientist 2604: 55.

Holloway, Todd, Miran Božičević, and Katy Börner. 2007. “Analyzing and Visualizing the Semantic Coverage of Wikipedia and Its Authors.” Complexity 12, 3: 30–40.

Kleinberg, J. M. 2002. “Bursty and Hierarchical Structure in Streams.” Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 91–101. New York: ACM Press.

Korfiatis, N., and Marios Poulos. 2006. “Evaluating Authoritative Sources Using Social Networks: An Insight from Wikipedia.” Online Information Review 30, 3: 252–262.

Leuf, B., and W. Cunningham. 2001. The Wiki Way. Boston: Addison-Wesley Professional.

Pullen, J. P. 2005. “Freedom of Information: Wikipedia’s Jimmy Wales Emancipates the Encyclopedia.” Continental, July. http://magazine.continental.com/archive/072005/content (accessed October 9, 2009).

Sarwar, Badrul, George Karypis, Joseph Konstan, and John Riedl. 2001. “Item-Based Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Algorithms.” Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on World Wide Web, 285–295. Hong Kong: ACM Press.

Waldman, S. 2004. “Who Knows? (Criticism of Wikipedia)” The Guardian, October 26.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010. “EasyTimeline.” Wikimedia Meta-Wiki. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:EasyTimeline (accessed February 10, 2010).

Wikimedia Foundation. 2009. “Wikipedia Statistics.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wikistats/EN (accessed February 5, 2010).

Wikimedia Foundation. 2009. “Wikipedia: Multilingual Statistics.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Multilingual_statistics (accessed February 5, 2010).

Zlatić, V., Miran Božičević, H. Štefančić, and M. Domazet. 2006. “Wikipedias: Collaborative Web-Based Encyclopedias as Complex Networks.” Physical Review E, 74, 1: 016115. http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0602149 (accessed October 6, 2009).

Image Credits

Herr II portrait courtesy of Bruce W. Herr II.

IVL Logo: Shravan Rajagopal (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

CNS Logo: Elisha F. Hardy (design), Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University.

Bruce W. Herr II (data mining and visualization), Todd Holloway (data mining), Elisha F. Hardy (graphic design), Kevin W. Boyack (graph layout), and Katy Börner (concept). 2007. “Science-Related Wikipedian Activity.” Bloomington, IN, and Albuquerque, NM. Courtesy of Indiana University.

VxOrd layouts courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack.

Screenshot from Science-Related Wikipedian Activity courtesy of Bruce W. Herr II.

Excerpted from “An Emergent Mosaic of Wikipedian Activity,” by Bruce W. Herr II and Todd Holloway, courtesy of Indiana University.

Screenshot courtesy of Bruce W. Herr II.

Data Credits

Wikimedia Foundation. 2008. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://wikipedia.org (accessed June 10, 2008).

Software Credits

Wikimedia Foundation. 2008. “Index of /tools/: MWDumper.jar.” http://download.wikimedia.org/tools (accessed June 10, 2008).

Kleinberg, Jon. “Sample Results from a Burst Detection Algorithm.” http://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/kleinber/kdd02.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

Information Visualization Cyberinfrastructure, School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University, Bloomington. 2004. “Software>Burst Detection.” http://iv.slis.indiana.edu/sw/burst.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

VxOrd, see Davidson et al. 2001.

Contributors

Wikimedia Foundation for making data dumps freely available for research. Miran Božičević introduced us to Wikipedia data.

Maps of Science: Forecasting Large Trends in Science

References

Boyack, Kevin, and Katy Börner. 2001. “Mapping Aging Research Handout.” Prepared for the Mapping Aging Research Presentation at the NIA Planning Workshop: Assessments of Behavioral and Social Science Research Vitality. Washington DC, November 9. http://ella.slis.indiana.edu/~katy/research (accessed June 2, 2008).

Davidson, George S., B. Hendrickson, D. K. Johnson, C. E. Meyers, and Brian N. Wylie. 1998. “Knowledge Mining with VxInsight: Discovery Through Interaction.” Journal of Intelligent Information Systems 11, 3: 259–285.

Davidson, George S., Brian N. Wylie, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2001. “Cluster Stability and the Use of Noise in Interpretation of Clustering.” Proceedings of IEEE Information Visualization 2001, 23–30. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE.

Klavans, Richard, and Kevin W. Boyack. 2006. “Quantitative Evaluation of Large Maps of Science.” Scientometrics 68, 3: 475–499.

Kobourov, Stephen G., and Kevin Wampler. 2004. “Non-Euclidean Spring Embedders.” Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 207–214.

Image Credits

Portraits of Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans © Balázs Schlemmer.

“Maps of Science: Forecasting Large Trends in Science,” © 2007, The Regents of the University of California, all rights reserved.

Three graph layouts, see Kobourov and Wampler 2004, fig. 1, p. 208. © 2004, IEEE used by permission.

UCSD Map of Science and Mercator projection, Visualization of the ISI and Scopus Databases, and legend courtesy of Richard Klavans and Kevin W. Boyack, SciTech Strategies, Inc., http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Screenshots of UCSD Map of Science with data overlays available at http://www.mapofscience.com, reproduced with permission of Richard Klavans and Kevin W. Boyack, SciTech Strategies, Inc., http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Data Credits

Science Citation Index (SCI), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), and Arts & Humanities Index (A&HI) by Thomson Reuters, 2001–2005. Scopus Database by Elsevier, 2001–2005.

Software Credits

VxOrd, see Davidson et al. 2001.

VxInsight, see Davidson 1998.

SciTech Strategies, Inc. 2008. “Maps of Science.” http://mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

Contributors

Coauthored by Kevin W. Boyack.

Hypothetical Model of the Evolution and Structure of Science

Image Credits

Zeller portrait courtesy of Daniel Zeller.

Hypothetical Model of the Evolution and Structure of Science, 2007, courtesy of Daniel Zeller, Pierogi Gallery, Brooklyn, and G-Module, Paris.

Superficial Inquiry, 2005; Microbial Interaction, 2005; Permeable Unit; Two Studies for the Hypothetical Model, 2007 courtesy of Daniel Zeller, Pierogi Gallery, Brooklyn, and G-Module, Paris.

Photograph of Daniel Zeller at work courtesy of Daniel Zeller.

178

Bonus Materials of the Exhibit

Image Credits

Photographs of the exhibit setup courtesy of Katy Börner.

Illuminated Diagrams

References

Boyack, Kevin W., Richard Klavans, W. Bradford Paley, and Katy Börner. 2007. “Mapping, Illuminating, and Interacting with Science.” Paper presented at SIGGRAPH 2007: The 34th International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in San Diego, CA, August 5–9.

Nature Editorial Staff, News. 2006. “2006 Gallery: Brilliant Display.” Nature 444: 985.

Paley, W. Bradford. 2006. W. Bradford Paley Home Page. http://www.wbpaley.com/brad (accessed June 10, 2008).

Paley, W. Bradford. 2007. “Map of Science in the Journal Nature, SEED and Discover Magazines.” http://wbpaley.com/brad/mapOfScience (accessed August 16, 2009). [Quotation]

Paley, W. Bradford. 2007. “Nature, Seed Map of Science Reprint.” Information Aesthetics.

Paley, W. Bradford. 2007. “Scientific Method: Relationships Among Scientific Paradigms.” SEED, March 7. http://www.seedmagazine.com/news/2007/03/scientific_method_relationship.php; accessed at http://www.flickr.com/photos/7446536@N03/430561725/; http://informationesthetics.org/documents/scienceMapPrintMockupEd2.jpg (accessed June 2, 2008).

Sandia National Laboratories. 2007. “A Map of Science.” http://www.sandia.gov/news/features/mapping_science.html (accessed June 2, 2008).

SourceForge, Inc. 2008. Slashdot Home Page. http://Slashdot.org (accessed June 10, 2008).

Image Credits

Photographs of Peter Kennard, Richard Klavans, W. Bradford Paley (kneeling), Kevin Boyack (standing), and John Burgoon and of exhibit setup courtesy of Katy Börner.

Photographs courtesy of Katy Börner, with design overlay by Elisha F. Hardy.

Kevin W. Boyack (scientometrics and data shaping), Dick Klavans (scientometrics and node layout), W. Bradford Paley (typography, graphics, and interaction design), John Burgoon (geographic mapmaking), and Peter Kennard (system design and programming). 2006. Illuminated Diagram of Topic Map and Geographic Map.

A: Boyack, Kevin W., and Richard Klavans. 2006. “Map of Scientific Paradigms.” Albuquerque, NM, and Berwyn, PA. Courtesy of Kevin W. Boyack, Sandia National Laboratories and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc. http://www.mapofscience.com (accessed June 10, 2008).

B: “Illuminated Diagram Topic Map,” based on “Map of Scientific Paradigms Research” and Node layout by Kevin W. Boyack and Richard Klavans, SciTech Strategies, Inc., http://www.mapofscience.com. Graphics and typography by W. Bradford Paley, Information Esthetics, http://didi.com/brad. Conceptualized and commissioned by Katy Börner.

C: “Relationships Among Scientific Paradigms,” as displayed in Nature, December 21, 2006, vol. 444, p. 985: 2006 Gallery.

D: “Relationships Among Scientific Paradigms,” as displayed in SEED magazine, March 7, 2007.

Photograph of the Illuminated Diagrams setups, one with Eric Wernert, Indiana University, courtesy of Katy Börner.

Contributors

New ID software was implemented by Jagan Lakshmipathy. Eric Wernert, Mike Boyles, Chris Eller, and Pooja Gupta contributed to the new ID setup. Kevin W. Boyack and W. Bradford Paley coauthored the text.

Hands-On Science Maps for Kids

References

Palmer, Fileve, Julie Smith, Elisha F. Hardy, and Katy Börner. 2007. “Hands-On Science Maps for Kids.” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science. http://scimaps.org/exhibit/kids (accessed June 10, 2008).

Image Credits

Palmer portrait courtesy of Fileve Palmer.

Davis portrait courtesy of Julie M. Davis.

Photograph courtesy of Katy Börner, with design overlay by Elisha F. Hardy.

World Map: Inventions and Science Map: Inventions by Fileve Palmer (original artwork and design) and Katy Börner (concept), Indiana University, using Illuminated Diagram of Topic Map and Geographic Map by Kevin W. Boyack, Dick Klavans, W. Bradford Paley, John Burgoon, and Peter Kennard, 2006.

Photographs courtesy of Katy Börner.

Timeline of Inventors and Inventions by Fileve Palmer (artwork) and Elisha F. Hardy (graphic design and layout).

Contributors

Base maps taken from Illuminated Diagram display by Kevin W. Boyack, Richard Klavans and W. Bradford Paley. Stephen Miles Uzzo (director of technology, New York Hall of Science) and Michael Lane (director of exhibit services, New York Hall of Science) provided expert advice and manufactured the physical maps.

WorldProcessor Globes

Image Credits

Photograph of John Burgoon, Ingo Günther, Stephen Oh, and Dongxia Monika Zhu courtesy of Katy Börner.

Photographs courtesy of Katy Börner, with design overlay by Elisha F. Hardy.

Globes © Ingo Günther, WorldProcessor.org, 1988–2007.

Contributors

Special thanks to John Burgoon, Monika Zhu, and Stephen Oh. © 2006 Ingo Günther.

Video of the Exhibition

References

Roberg, Nicole A. 2005. “My Science Story.” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science. http://scimaps.org (accessed June 10, 2008).

Image Credits

Chad Redmon and Aaron Raskin (of Harbinger Media, Inc.) portraits courtesy of Chad Redmon and Aaron Raskin.

Herzig portrait © Yelena Yahontova, Photographer of Joy.

Photograph of the cover; screenshots of Katy Börner, Deborah MacPherson, John Ganly, Kevin Boyack, W. Bradford Paley, Richard Klavans, André Skupin, and Henry G. Small; and acknowledgments of the Places & Spaces Mapping Science DVD courtesy of Katy Börner and Harbinger Media, Inc., used by permission.

Contributors

Nicole (Nikki) Roberg designed the “Science Maps for Kids Coloring Book.”

Acknowledgements: This exhibit is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS-0238261, CHE-0524661, IIS-0534909 and IIS-0715303, the James S. McDonnell Foundation; Thomson Reuters; the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, University Information Technology Services, and the School of Library and Information Science, all three at Indiana University. Some of the data used to generate the science maps is from the Web of Science by Thomson Reuters and Scopus by Elsevier. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.