V.6 由化学研究委员会制作的化学研发加速美国创新引擎

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Council for Chemical Research

化学研究委员会(The Council for Chemical Research ,简称CCR)委任经济学专家开展一个为期两阶段的研究——《一报还一报:化学研发加速美国创新引擎》于2005年发表在化学科学领域的《研发的定量影响》上。利用专利和科学文献来决定从基础研究到市场的20年时间表。此外,专家们还识别了两大主要的反馈周期:(1)化学工业创新与联邦支持基础研究有直接联系;(2)为了发明开发和技术商业化,大约10亿美元的联邦投资能够撬起大约5亿美元的工业投资。专家们也估计在过去20年由化学工业投资在研发上的每一分钱已经在增加营业收入上产生了2美元,税后有17%的投资回报率。在2005年来自于洛斯阿拉莫斯国家实验室的研究者调查了国民生产总值和就业方面100亿的化学工业收入的宏观经济影响。利用REMI政策模型,他们制定了一种四倍乘数的GNP模型,能够适用于有100亿美元营业收入的企业,能够产生400亿美元的过GNP;它也同样创造了600000个新工作,粗略估计每年有8亿美元的税收收入增加,而这其中的一部分是由化学研发投资的,从而关闭了这个循环。

Translation by:

Yunwei Chen, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

References:

Council for Chemical Research in cooperation with the Chemical Heritage Foundation. Phase I. 2001. “Measuring Up: Research and Development Counts for the Chemical Industry.” Washington: Council for Chemical Research. Accessed August 31, 2011. http://www.ccrhq.org/publications.

Council for Chemical Research. Phase II. 2005. “Measure for Measure: Chemical R&D Powers the U.S. Innovation Engine.” Washington: Council for Chemical Research. Accessed September 7, 2011. http://www.ccrhq.org/publications_docs/CCRPhaseIIStudyReport.pdf.

Council for Chemical Research. 2009. Chemical R&D Powers the U.S. Innovation Engine. Courtesy of the Council for Chemical Research. In “5th Iteration (2009): Science Maps for Science Policy-Makers,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Elisha F. Hardy. http://scimaps.org.

Acknowledgements: This exhibit is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS-0238261, CHE-0524661, IIS-0534909 and IIS-0715303, the James S. McDonnell Foundation; Thomson Reuters; the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, University Information Technology Services, and the School of Library and Information Science, all three at Indiana University. Some of the data used to generate the science maps is from the Web of Science by Thomson Reuters and Scopus by Elsevier. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.