III.2 共同制作的石油时代:1859年到2050年世界石油开采图谱

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Rob Bracken

Dave Menninger

Michael Poremba

Richard Katz

作家Rob Bracken,绘图艺术家Dave Menninger,统计学家Michael Poremba,以及分析学家Richard Katz共同创建了该图表,来表示在不断增长和持续发展的工业文明中化石燃料的核心作用——特别是石油。事实上,我们认为现代的所有东西——从汽车到飞机再到塑料制品——都依赖于人们熟知的石油制品的力量,它是主要的能源密集型和通用的物质。石油时代图标从临界角例举了石油的历史,表示了其产量的增长,绘制了它的地理资源,并解释了它与社会政治的密切关系。图表的绘制领用到了多种多样的数据来源,包括了政府数据和主要的地质学家的成果,例如Colin Campbell,他的石油消耗模型跨越从1859年至2050年的大部分石油时代,绘制了图表的中心图像。通过展示未来时间里石油的高峰和下降,该图表提出一个棘手的问题:人类将如何处理他们最有价值的资源正在无法改变地被消耗的局面呢?迄今为止,该图表已经分发给了美国国会每个成员,并赠送给了全国超过2500名教师。

Translation by:

Yunwei Chen, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

References:

Campbell, Colin J. 2003. The Essence of Oil & Gas Depletion. Essex, UK: Multi-Science Publishing Company.

Bracken, Rob, Dave Menninger, Michael Poremba, and Richard Katz. 2006. The Oil Age: World Oil Production 1859-2050. Courtesy of San Francisco Informatics. In “3rd Iteration (2007): The Power of Forecasts,” Places & Spaces: Mapping Science, edited by Katy Börner and Julie M. Davis. http://scimaps.org.

Acknowledgements: This exhibit is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS-0238261, CHE-0524661, IIS-0534909 and IIS-0715303, the James S. McDonnell Foundation; Thomson Reuters; the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, University Information Technology Services, and the School of Library and Information Science, all three at Indiana University. Some of the data used to generate the science maps is from the Web of Science by Thomson Reuters and Scopus by Elsevier. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.